As Fig. 22 (Shapiro, Iliev & Raga 2004) shows, the number of ionizing photons absorbed per initial minihalo atom, ξ , increases gradually with time; in addition, it depends on the ionizing spectrum assumed.
The First Cosmic Structures and their Effects
South pole. A comagnetometer based on helium and xenon atoms at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics generated a number of the ﬁrst limits on neutron coeﬃcients for Lorentz violation [22, 23].
Testing Lorentz symmetry with atoms and Light
In eq. (22), where ˆΩ ≡ | the index i enumerates the electrons, i.e. the one-electron quantum states determined uniquely by the hydrogen-atom quantum numbers, n, ℓ and m.
The internal-environment model of the Stern-Gerlach experiment