The combination of forward kinematics (η = 2.2 ÷ 4) with the large atomic number A = 197 enhances the saturation effects in the gold target.
Multiparticle Dynamics in the LHC Era
In the t → ∞ limit, for any ﬁxed value of r, only localized eigenstates contribute to for the number of localized atoms Nloc = (cid:80)(cid:48) | < α|Φ > |2 , where the prime this expression.
Cold atoms in the presence of disorder
Inside this exponential we have the atom number difference operator ˆa† ˆa − ˆb†ˆb which is quantized in units of 2 when the total number is ﬁxed and units of 1 when it isn’t ﬁxed.
Tests of Bose-broken Symmetry in Atomic Bose-Einstein Condensates
Below based on the modelling of the continuous spectrum of MWC 560 we determine the total column density (the number of protons + the number of hydrogen atoms) of the absorbing gas in the jet, NH ≈ 1024 cm−2 .
Spectral study of MWC560. Parameters of the system, the hot source and the jets
Table 2.3: Limits on number of trapped atoms when evaporative cooling is the sole cooling mechanism.
Bose-Einstein Condensation of Atomic Hydrogen