argument

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n argument a course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating a truth or falsehood; the methodical process of logical reasoning "I can't follow your line of reasoning"
    • n argument a variable in a logical or mathematical expression whose value determines the dependent variable; if f(x)=y, x is the independent variable
    • n argument (computer science) a reference or value that is passed to a function, procedure, subroutine, command, or program
    • n argument a summary of the subject or plot of a literary work or play or movie "the editor added the argument to the poem"
    • n argument a fact or assertion offered as evidence that something is true "it was a strong argument that his hypothesis was true"
    • n argument a discussion in which reasons are advanced for and against some proposition or proposal "the argument over foreign aid goes on and on"
    • n argument a contentious speech act; a dispute where there is strong disagreement "they were involved in a violent argument"
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The horse race starting gate is a Canadian invention, designed in the early 1900s by Philip McGinnis, a racetrack reporter from Huntingdon, Quebec. The device proved popular because it prevented arguments caused when horses started prematurely.
    • Argument A process of reasoning, or a controversy made up of rational proofs; argumentation; discussion; disputation. "The argument is about things, but names."
    • Argument A reason or reasons offered in proof, to induce belief, or convince the mind; reasoning expressed in words; as, an argument about concerning, or regarding a proposition, for or in favor of it, or against it.
    • Argument Matter for question; business in hand. "Sheathed their swords for lack of argument ."
    • Argument Proof; evidence. "There is.. no more palpable and convincing argument of the existence of a Deity.""Why, then, is it made a badge of wit and an argument of parts for a man to commence atheist, and to cast off all belief of providence, all awe and reverence for religion?"
    • Argument (Math) The independent variable upon whose value that of a function depends.
    • Argument (Astron) The quantity on which another quantity in a table depends; as, the altitude is the argument of the refraction.
    • Argument The subject matter of a discourse, writing, or artistic representation; theme or topic; also, an abstract or summary, as of the contents of a book, chapter, poem. "You and love are still my argument .""The abstract or argument of the piece.""Shields] with boastful argument portrayed."
    • v. i Argument To make an argument; to argue.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n argument A statement or fact tending to produce belief concerning a matter in doubt; a premise or premises set forth in order to prove an assumption or conclusion.
    • n argument [This, the familiar meaning of the word, probably originated in Roman law-courts. The usual definition given by Cicero and almost all authorities is ratio rei dubiœ faciens fidem, a reason causing belief of a doubtful matter. Boëtius in one place defines it as a medium proving a conclusion. The word medium here means a premise, or premises, according to all the commentators. (Petrus Hisp., tr. v. ad init.) But since medium usually means the middle term of a syllogism, some logicians have been led to give argument this signification.]
    • n argument The middle term of a syllogism.
    • n argument A reasoning; the process by which the connection between that which is or is supposed to be admitted and that which is doubted or supposed to need confirmation is traced or tested.
    • n argument An address or composition made for the purpose of producing belief or conviction by reasoning or persuasion.
    • n argument A series of argumentations for and against a proposition; a debate.
    • n argument The subject-matter or groundwork of a discourse or writing; specifically, an abstract or summary of the chief points in a book or section of a book: as, the arguments prefixed to the several books of “Paradise Lost” were an afterthought.
    • n argument Matter of contention, controversy, or conversation.
    • n argument In mathematics: Of an imaginary quantity, the coefficient of the imaginary unit in its logarithm.
    • n argument The angle or quantity on which a series of numbers in a numerical table depends and with which the table is entered. If, for example, a table of the sun's declination were formed corresponding to every degree, etc., of longitude, so that, the longitude being known, the declination might be found opposite to it, then the longitude would be called the argument of the table. Tables of double entry have two arguments. In the Ptolemaic astronomy, the argument, without qualification, is the angular distance on the epicycle of a planet from the true apogee of the epicycle; and the equation of the argument is the angular distance, as seen from the earth, of a planet from the center of the epicycle, the correction to the second inequality. See equation.
    • argument To argue; debate; bring forward reasons.
    • argument To make the subject of an argument or debate.
    • n argument When one variable is dependent upon another, the dependent variable is called a function of the other variable, which is then called the argument of the function.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Argument ärg′ū-ment a statement, or reason based on such, offered as proof: a series of reasons or a step in such: discussion: subject of a discourse: summary of the subject-matter of a book:
    • n Argument ärg′ū-ment (obs.) matter of controversy
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Quotations

  • Daniel Webster
    Daniel%20Webster
    “Keep cool; anger is not an argument.”
  • Joseph Addison
    Joseph%20Addison
    “Arguments out of a pretty mouth are unanswerable.”
  • Larry Adler
    Larry Adler
    “The long term versus the short term argument is one used by losers.”
  • Robert Benchley
    Robert Benchley
    “Most of the arguments to which I am party fall somewhat short of being impressive, knowing to the fact that neither I nor my opponent knows what we are talking about”
  • Louis D. Brandeis
    Louis D. Brandeis
    “Behind every argument is someone's ignorance.”
  • Samuel Butler
    Samuel%20Butler
    “Arguments are like fire-arms which a man may keep at home but should not carry about with him.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
F. argument, L. argumentum, fr. arguere, to argue
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. argumentum. See Argue.

Usage

In literature:

In all my experience it was the same; the "affirmative" had the merit and the argument.
"History of Woman Suffrage, Volume I"
He had the quick eye of his house for the unsound parts of an argument, and a great felicity in exposing them.
"Critical and Historical Essays, Volume III (of 3)" by Thomas Babington Macaulay
More valuable for literature is another division of arguments into arguments from cause, arguments from sign, and arguments from example.
"English: Composition and Literature" by W. F. (William Franklin) Webster
Another charges, that the whole work is based on a fallacy, and that all its arguments, therefore, are unsound.
"Cotton is King and The Pro-Slavery Arguments" by Various
The infidels had the better in this part of the argument.
"The Testimony of the Rocks" by Hugh Miller
There is one point tacitly postulated in this argument which should not be overlooked.
"Liberalism" by L. T. Hobhouse
He urges on him many arguments, his duty to his children included.
"Introduction to the Science of Sociology" by Robert E. Park
Better to ask questions than offer arguments.
"The Saracen: Land of the Infidel" by Robert Shea
Of all arguments for vegetarianism, none is so weak as the argument from humanity.
"Social Rights and Duties, Volume I (of 2)" by Sir Leslie Stephen
Then the question occurs: Is this a logical argument, or an appeal from argument to feeling?
"The Life of Sir James Fitzjames Stephen, Bart., K.C.S.I." by Sir Leslie Stephen
The arguments used were often most absurd.
"The Railroad Question" by William Larrabee
As to arguments against Home Rule, I do not think it a case for argument.
"Ireland as It Is" by Robert John Buckley (AKA R.J.B.)
But that was the line of her argument.
"Is He Popenjoy?" by Anthony Trollope
Doubtless the reader already foresees the course of our argument.
"Essays: Scientific, Political, & Speculative, Vol. I" by Herbert Spencer
Ten years ago it was almost impossible to secure space in any paper for woman suffrage arguments.
"The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume IV" by Various
In common, I believe, with the majority of intelligent men I think you have won your case on the argument.
"The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume V"
He had the unlimited faith of his generation in the efficacy of argument, and experience had proved his power.
"Shelley, Godwin and Their Circle" by H. N. Brailsford
The subjects taught were Suffrage History and Argument, Organization, Publicity and Press, Money Raising and Parliamentary Law.
"The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume VI" by Various
But no arguments were forthcoming.
"The One-Way Trail" by Ridgwell Cullum
This will fully open the question and prepare the reader for my argument.
"Junius Unmasked" by Joel Moody
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In poetry:

Yea; wilt thou not relent?
Be mine the wrong,
No more the argument,
Dear love, prolong.
"The Quarrel" by Richard Le Gallienne
His argument was novel - for
A verdict he relied
On blackening the junior
Upon the other side.
"Damon vs. Pythias" by William Schwenck Gilbert
I would but cannot love,
Though wooed by love divine;
No arguments have pow'r to move
A soul so base as mine.
"The Good That I Would I Do Not" by John Newton
There's been fierce argument of late
In my vicinitee,
Between the Commonwealth and State,
For I fell out with me.
"Another Fusion" by C J Dennis
Let argument ignore the cost,
If it be dear or cheap,
And only claim that naught be lost
When it's too good to keep.
"A Fowl Affair" by Hattie Howard
And many a cogent argument
She used, of duteous wives;
And many more that mothers thus
Should never risk their lives.
"A Ballad Of 1812" by Sarah Anne Curzon

In news:

Hamilton Mayor John Bencivengo corruption trial: attorneys deliver closing arguments.
PAUL BILODEAU/Staff photo Daniel Lee Lopez, left, and Ronny Ramos listen to closing arguments during their trial in Salem Superior Court.
Liberals brag about having won the hearts and minds of America, as if, through logic and argument, they've persuaded people to accept their bankrupt European socialist ideas.
Further, as the argument goes, these long-term demographic shifts could usher in a permanent left-of-center majority.
Despite Obama derision , Romney sticks to Navy ships argument.
The state Attorney General's Office is calling a legal argument to dismiss criminal charges against San Bernardino County Supervisor Neil Derry for allegedly laundering a campaign contribution as "meritless" and misinformed.
CLEVELAND — A federal judge will hear arguments Dec 11 in Oxford on proposals to desegregate two schools in the Cleveland School District.
The Indiana Court of Appeals rejected a man's argument that he could not have been detained in the hospital for mental health reasons before an application for detention was filed, which occurred after facility security guards restrained him.
Of course an argument can be made that even these serve as a tactical deterrent .
After months of legal filings and lawyers wrangling, a panel of three federal judges in San Antonio listened to opening arguments Tuesday morning in a key trial that encompasses several challenges to the state's redistricting maps.
During oral arguments last week, Justice Stephen Breyer was trying to come up with a formula to ensure that jury selection processes don't end up excluding minorities from the pool.
Government's closing argument calls on jury to discern "reality from fiction".
Nevertheless, arguments like Hinderaker's can have an impact, even if they're easily- discredited .
Bogus arguments from Phil Gramm, Glenn Hubbard, and Peggy Noonan.
This function takes a SHFILEOPSTRUCT data structure as its single argument and returns zero for success or nonzero for failure.
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In science:

There are at least three other proofs of this fact: an argument using q series, specializing an identity about Hall-Littlewood polynomials, or a slick argument using Markov chains and an identity of Cauchy.
Random matrix theory over finite fields: a survey
The argument here is again a pure homotopy argument as in the proof of the more general Proposition 9.2.
On the Gribov Problem for Generalized Connections
Its first argument points into the second element of QUANT, and its second argument relates to the whole CONTENT feature.
Interfacing Constraint-Based Grammars and Generation Algorithms
In some sense this matrix model can be thought of in terms of the low-energy theory of N D-instantons, although there does not seem to be an argument analogous to the Seiberg/Sen limiting argument which justifies the dropping of higher-order terms in the Born-Infeld theory for this model.
M(atrix) Theory: Matrix Quantum Mechanics as a Fundamental Theory
Each argument of the second row is the bicomplex conjugate of the corresponding argument of the first row.
Bicomplex algebra and function theory
The following argument is inspired by an argument of Ohmori [Oh].
Rationality properties of unipotent representations
We also devise an analytic scaling argument, a healing time argument, that predicts that the dynamic exponent is equal to z = d + 2 in d dimensions.
Anomalous Roughness, Localization, and Globally Constrained Random Walks
The arguments of the Z function as well as their helicities are filled into a list of arguments via Fill Args().
AMEGIC++ 1.0, A Matrix Element Generator In C++
If the argument is a propagator, i.e. the number is larger than 99, a signed propagator number and the appropriate helicity is added to the list of arguments.
AMEGIC++ 1.0, A Matrix Element Generator In C++
With the current Point and these two pointers as arguments the type of the Zfunc can be determined (Determine Zfunc()) and the arguments can be filled in (Fill Zfunc()).
AMEGIC++ 1.0, A Matrix Element Generator In C++
The first argument of the Pfunc is the number of the appropriate propagator and the two next arguments correspond to the numbers of the left and right handed particles in the graph.
AMEGIC++ 1.0, A Matrix Element Generator In C++
If one of the two arguments is a propagator, all emerging numbers of this propagator will be replaced by the second argument in all Cfuncs.
AMEGIC++ 1.0, A Matrix Element Generator In C++
Then, all other delta functions which are multiplied with the current one, are searched for the first argument of the delta function which is then replaced by the second argument.
AMEGIC++ 1.0, A Matrix Element Generator In C++
Our new conjunction, denoted ∧⋆ , is defined precisely when at least one of its arguments is defined, so it resembles ∧SAC in this respect, but instead of assigning the other argument a default value when it is undefined, like SAC does, it uses its most recent defined value, instead.
The temporal calculus of conditional objects and conditional events
Here, it means another formal argument for supporting conclusions of the (otherwise broadly tested) Davies theory in our main text by independent arguments in the Appendix.
Stationary flows in quantum dissipative closed circuits as a challenge to thermodynamics
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