# angle of refraction

## Definitions

• WordNet 3.6
• n angle of refraction the angle between a refracted ray and a line perpendicular to the surface between the two media at the point of refraction
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
• Angle of refraction (Opt) the angle which a refracted ray makes with the perpendicular to the surface separating the two media traversed by the ray.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
• Angle of refraction the angle between a perpendicular and a ray of light after its change of direction, bearing a constant ratio to the sine of the angle of incidence—the index of refraction
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## Etymology

Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. refringĕre, refractumre-, back, frangĕre, to break.

## Usage

### In literature:

Owing to this bending of the rays of light the angles of refraction and incidence are never equal.
"The History and Practice of the Art of Photography" by Henry H. Snelling
The Angle of Refraction.
"The Best Short Stories of 1915" by Various
The men had ridden forward after me, and having also passed the angle of refraction saw no more of the phantom host.
"The Scalp Hunters" by Mayne Reid
In the third Experiment of this first Part, where the refracting Angle of the Prism was 62-1/2 Degrees, the half of that Angle 31 deg.
"Opticks" by Isaac Newton
The uncertainties of terrestrial refraction render it impossible to determine accurately by vertical angles the heights of distant points.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 11, Slice 6" by Various
There were candles on the table, and little bright refractions of light came darting through the angles of flower-stands and glasses.
"The Debit Account" by Oliver Onions
There are three refracting angles possible, one of 120 deg.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 12, Slice 8" by Various
Other rays show increasing refraction with increasing angle of incidence.
"Physics" by Willis Eugene Tower
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### In science:

If media 0 and 1 are transparent (so that N0 and N1 are real numbers) and no total reﬂection occurs, the angles θ0 and θ1 are also real and the above picture of how a plane wave is reﬂected and refracted at the interface is simple.
Constructing Fresnel reflection coefficients by ruler and compass
The radius OS1 determines then the refraction angle θ1 . A quick look at this ﬁgure shows that the pro jections on the vertical axis of the radii OS0 and OS1 are identical, in agreement with Snell’s law.
Constructing Fresnel reflection coefficients by ruler and compass
Undoped oil has the advantages of a larger refractive index, leading to larger Cerenkov opening angle, and of not requiring a puriﬁcation system to remove living organisms.
Neutrino Experiments
Whether the multiply-reﬂected beams are in-phase or not depends on the wavelength (λ) of the light (in vacuum), the angle the light travels through the FP (θ), the thickness of the etalon (l) and the refractive index of the material between the reﬂecting surfaces (n).
AMBER Task Force February 2008 run report
These particles, which typically travel faster than the speed of light in the detector medium, emit directional Cherenkov light at an angle θC = cos−1 [1/βn] ∼ 41◦ , where n is the refraction index of the medium.
In Search for Extraterrestrial High Energy Neutrinos
In Ref.  it was observed that, under certain conditions, the electron beam passing through a graphene pn-junction experiences refraction in such a manner that the refraction angle equals to minus the angle of incidence, see Fig. 23.
Electronic properties of mesoscopic graphene structures: charge confinement and control of spin and charge transport
The resulting charge refraction is not of the classical Snell’s law type, and is asymmetric with respect to the transformation of the angle of incidence φ → −φ .
Electronic properties of mesoscopic graphene structures: charge confinement and control of spin and charge transport
The transmission and reﬂection coeﬃcients across the junction between two areas with different values V1 , A1 and V2 , A2 (Fig. 25), and the angle of refraction (i.e., the direction of the transmitted current) depend on the electric potentials.
Electronic properties of mesoscopic graphene structures: charge confinement and control of spin and charge transport
BK 7 = 1.52 is the refraction index of BK7 glass at 532nm, θi is the incidence angle on the window and θo is the output direction of the beam.
Design of the wavefront sensor unit of ARGOS, the LBT laser guide star system
Their operation is fully speciﬁed by Snell’s law of refraction and the dispersive properties of the medium. A light ray incident on the face of a prism with refractive index nλ deviates by an angle δ = i − r , where i is the angle to the face normal, and r is the refracted angle.
Classical Spectroscopy
L is the interaction length, n is one index of refraction, ∆k is the mismatch between optical and acoustic wavevectors, and θi is the incident angle relative to the crystal optical axis.
Classical Spectroscopy
The angle of emission is proportional to the velocity of particle as θ = arccos(1/nβ ), where n is the index of refraction.
BEAUTY'99 Conference Summary
Table 1: Characteristics of radiators in RICH detectors in B-physics experiments: refractive index n, maximum emission angle θmax c = arccos(1/n), and threshold momenta for pions and kaons (pthr > m/p(n2 − 1)).
BEAUTY'99 Conference Summary
Therefore, the diffraction angle is the same for any spheres of the same size, regardless of their refractive index. Also, the efficiency of diffraction has been verified to depend on the polarization of the irradiating light, in a way compatible with the elementary predictions of Mie theory.
A 2D nanosphere array for atomic spectroscopy
This may seem counter-intuitive, however, between the various angles of incidence, the Cherenkov angle and the angular spread of the Cherenkov cone, angles of refraction and angle characterizing the lunar surface roughness, the downward neutrinos can contribute appreciably to the signal.
Radio Cherenkov signals from the Moon: neutrinos and cosmic rays
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