ammonia

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n ammonia a pungent gas compounded of nitrogen and hydrogen (NH3)
    • n ammonia a water solution of ammonia
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: 'Crack' is the street name given to cocaine that has been processed from cocaine hydrochloride to a free base for smoking. Rather than requiring the more volatile method of processing cocaine using ether, crack cocaine is processed with ammonia or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and water and heated to remove the hydrochloride, thus producing a form of cocaine that can be smoked.
    • n Ammonia (Chem) A gaseous compound of hydrogen and nitrogen, NH3, with a pungent smell and taste: -- often called volatile alkali, and spirits of hartshorn.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Joseph Priestley not only discovered oxygen, but he also discovered ammonia, carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, sulphur dioxide, and nitrous oxide. He was also the first person to isolate chlorine.
    • n ammonia The modern name of the volatile alkali, NH3, formerly so called to distinguish it from the more fixed alkalis. It is a colorless gas, very soluble in water, having a pungent and suffocating smell, and a transient alkaline effect on vegetable colors. It can be liquefied by pressure and frozen by a mixture of solid carbonic acid and ether in a vacuum. Its density is only about half that of atmospheric air. It is a strong base, and forms a great number of salts which are isomorphous with those of potassium and exhibit a close analogy to them. It is found in minute quantity in air, and is a natural product of the decay of animal substances. It is procured artificially by the destructive distillation of nitrogenous organic matters, such as bones, hair, horns, and hoofs, and is largely obtained as a by-product in the manufacture of illuminating gas from coal. Ammonia is used very largely in medicine and the arts, chiefly in solution in water under the name of liquid ammonia, aqueous ammonia, or spirits of hartshorn. (See aqua ammoniœ, under aqua.) Among the more important salts of ammonia is ammonium chlorid, or sal ammoniac, NH4CI, which formerly was the source from which all ammonium salts were prepared. It is largely used in dyeing, and in soldering and tinning. At present ammonium sulphate, (NH4)2SO4, is the starting-point for the manufacture of ammonium salts, being made in large quantity from gas-liquor. It is also used as a fertilizer. There are several ammonium carbonates. The commercial article, called sal volatile, is a mixture of hydrogen-ammonium carbonate and ammonium carbamate. See ammonium.
    • n ammonia [capitalized] In zoöl.: An old quasi-generic name of Spirula. Breyn, 1732. A genus of arachnidans.
    • n ammonia The great value of ammonia as a fertilizer, chiefly in the form of ammonium sulphate, renders the question of its supply on a large scale one of much importance. Until recent years it was obtained mainly from the watery ammoniacal liquor which is a by-product of the manufacture of coal-gas for illuminating purposes. This source of supply has been seriously threatened by the extension, especially in the United States, of the use of carbureted water-gas, in making which little or no ammonia is obtained. Notable improvements, however, have been made in methods for the recovery of ammonia from the waste gases of coke-ovens, shale-works, and blast-furnaces, and very considerable amounts are now obtained from these previously neglected sources. One of the most interesting results secured with the aid of the high temperature of the modern electric furnace is the synthetical production of ammonia from the nitrogen of atmospheric air and the hydrogen of water. Carbon in the form of coke is mixed with lime and the mixture intensely heated in the presence of atmospheric nitrogen, giving rise to carbon-monoxid gas and calcium cyanamide (CaCN2). The latter, heated with water under pressure, yields calcium carbonate and ammonia (CaCN2 + 3H2O = CaCO3 + 2N H3). It appears that cyanamide itself may serve, when used directly as a fertilizer, to furnish assimilable nitrogen to growing plants.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Joseph Priestly is credited with discovering oxygen, ammonia, carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, sulphur dioxide, and nitrous oxide. He was also the first to isolate chlorine.
    • n Ammonia am-mōn′i-a a pungent gas yielded by smelling-salts, burning feathers, &c.: a solution of ammonia in water (properly liquid ammonia): a name of a large series of compounds, analogous to ammonia, including amines, amides, and alkalamides
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Quotations

  • Robert Downey Jr.
    Robert Downey Jr.
    “A lot of my peer group think I'm an eccentric bisexual, like I may even have an ammonia-filled tentacle somewhere on my body. That's okay.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
From sal ammoniac, which was first obtaining near the temple of Jupiter Ammon, by burning camel's dung. See Ammoniac
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
From sal-ammoniac, or smelling-salts, first obtained by heating camel's dung in Libya, near the temple of Jupiter Ammon.

Usage

In literature:

Red Cross has ammonia in it and that ought to help some.
"Northern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the Fifth Annual Meeting" by Various
Run for the ammonia, Salome.
"Lucy Maud Montgomery Short Stories, 1902 to 1903" by Lucy Maud Montgomery
Ice was obtained elsewhere, made from an ammonia plant, in bars two feet by six inches.
"In Mesopotamia" by Martin Swayne
His results for ammonia, as well as nitric acid, are given in the subjoined table.
"Elements of Agricultural Chemistry" by Thomas Anderson
In this way much of the ammonia that otherwise would be evaporated from the manure is arrested and retained.
"Mushrooms: how to grow them" by William Falconer
The faint smell of ammonia set him to coughing.
"Hunters Out of Space" by Joseph Everidge Kelleam
They threw Cold Water on him, held a Bottle of Ammonia to his Nose and stuck Pins in under his Finger-Nails.
"Fables in Slang" by George Ade
On their arrival at home, Mrs Hugh applied ammonia and oil.
"The Young Berringtons" by W.H.G. Kingston
Treatment consists of applications of camphor or ammonia-water; carbolic acid and thymol lotions are also useful.
"Essentials of Diseases of the Skin" by Henry Weightman Stelwagon
Add to the water a few drops of ammonia or of Pond's extract, if the skin is liable to chap.
"The Complete Bachelor" by Walter Germain
For example, five firemen are overcome by ammonia fumes or two men are seriously injured by a falling wall.
"Newspaper Reporting and Correspondence" by Grant Milnor Hyde
The taste was that of aged buttermilk mixed with ammonia.
"The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 15, No. 87, January, 1865" by Various
The ammonia rose from 0.7 grams per day to 2.6 grams per day, and then varied from 0.3 to 1.5 grams per day.
"The Starvation Treatment of Diabetes" by Lewis Webb Hill
Here again in respect to its absorptive power for ammonia, peat comes to our aid.
"Peat and its Uses as Fertilizer and Fuel" by Samuel William Johnson
When Rand returned he had in his hand a solution of permanganate of potash and a vial of strong ammonia.
"The Boy Scouts on the Yukon" by Ralph Victor
Wynnette gave her Mrs. Force's bottle of sal ammonia that stood, by chance, on the sofa table.
"Her Mother's Secret" by Emma D. E. N. Southworth
A ton of coal will produce 1,400 pounds of coke, worth $1.50, and 20 pounds of sulphate of ammonia, worth 50 cents.
"The Young Farmer: Some Things He Should Know" by Thomas Forsyth Hunt
Yes, you'd better put in the brandy flask and the aromatic ammonia.
"Virginia" by Ellen Glasgow
The action of salts of ammonia and other chemicals was even more wonderful.
"Life of Charles Darwin" by G. T. (George Thomas) Bettany
They rubbed him and put him in some dry clothes and gave him a dose of aromatic ammonia to steady his nerves, and then some supper.
"A Modern Cinderella" by Amanda M. Douglas
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In news:

Live' ammonia release drill held at AMS.
A firefighter walks away from the decontamination area, during a "live" ammonia release drill held at Atlanta Motor Speedway Wednesday.
What is Baker's Ammonia .
Tanks of Ammonia Found in Indiana Self-Storage Unit.
Several tanks of anhydrous ammonia were discovered in a unit at a self-storage facility in Evansville, Ind.
An ammonia leak caused the evacuation of a local business this morning.
20, The Shreveport Fire Department was called out to Foremost Dairy in the 5300 block of Interstate Drive to a reported anhydrous ammonia leak.
About 20 pounds of ammonia was released early Tuesday when a relief valve opened on the top of the huge ammonia tank at DuPont Co.'s Belle plant.
DuPont said about 20 pounds of ammonia apparently leaked from the top of the ammonia tank at its Belle plant early this morning.
The plant sounded the fume alert at 2:36 am "after a remote sensor detected a small leak from a vent on top of the ammonia tank," DuPont said in a prepared statement.
Hach Introduces New Benchtop Meter and Ammonia Probe.
Attempted theft of ammonia gas perhaps by old-school methamphetamine cookers appears to be the cause of a leak in a cold storage plant in downtown Kent this morning.
Firefighters and company crews have stopped a dangerous leak at a berry-packing plant south of Canby, but not before about 3,000 pounds of ammonia spilled out.
Ammonia treated meat that we eat.
I wonder if ammonia treated meat can lead to health-related problems down the road for us and our kids.
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In science:

Feynman, Leighton, and Sands 1965), Feynman describes the maser mode of the ammonia molecule as another (very different) two-state system.
Decoherence: Basic Concepts and Their Interpretation
Even chiral states of a sugar molecule appear “classical”, in contrast to its parity and energy eigenstates, which correctly describe the otherwise analogous maser mode states of the ammonia molecule (see Sect. 3.2.4 for details).
Decoherence: Basic Concepts and Their Interpretation
For example, in the ammonia synthesis it is the dissociation of N2 , and for various examples of oxidation catalysis (e.g., the catalytic oxidation of CO) it is the dissociation of O2 (see Section 5.10 below).
Theory of Adsorption on Metal Substrates
We may even be observing the last stages of the outflow-core interaction in G192.16, a massive (early B) young star, where the dense core gas is optically thin and clumpy, and the ammonia core is gravitationally unstable (Shepherd et al., 2004).
Molecular Outflows in Low- and High-Mass Star Forming Regions
The strong methane, water, and ammonia absorption bands are immediately visible in this spectrum. Two model atmospheres are overlaid on these data, one with and one without clouds.
First Fruits of the Spitzer Space Telescope: Galactic and Solar System Studies
The smaller-scale spectral features are also due to water, methane, and ammonia, with their relative importance depending on the temperature.
First Fruits of the Spitzer Space Telescope: Galactic and Solar System Studies
The irradiated ammonia (NH3 ), which will be used as polarised proton target, has a less favourable composition (f ≈ 0.15) but can be polarised to a higher degree (> 80%).
The COMPASS Experiment at CERN
Temperatures for the denser gas in cores are better determined using the metastable inversion levels of ammonia (NH3 ), which can be observed simultaneously at a wavelength of about 1.3 cm (Walmsley & Ungerechts 1983).
Cold Dark Clouds: The Initial Conditions for Star Formation
Pure gas-phase models without freeze-out cannot produce significant quantities of doubly (NHD2 ; Roueff et al. 2000) and triply deuterated ammonia (ND3 ; Lis et al. 2002) as observed in starless cores.
Cold Dark Clouds: The Initial Conditions for Star Formation
This molecule is key as it also is the likely formation route of NH3 , and if it depletes then ammonia should follow suit.
Cold Dark Clouds: The Initial Conditions for Star Formation
Other molecules such as silane and ammonia may provide high opacities in carbon-rich stars and supergiants (see Monnier et al. 2000 and references therein) but were not found to be good candidates for our analysis.
The molecular and dusty composition of Betelgeuse's inner circumstellar environment
For example, the well known EDM of ammonia is not permanent because the nitrogen atom tunnels back and forth at a frequency set by the splitting of the two opposite-parity field-free states.
Preparation and manipulation of molecules for fundamental physics tests
The system also has a large far-IR excess and lies embedded in a dense envelope in a small ammonia core (Anglada et al. 1989; Sato et al. 1990).
Low Mass Star Formation in the Taurus-Auriga Clouds
Lying within a dense ammonia core (Benson & Myers 1989), L1527 IRS is the most deeply embedded protostellar source in the Taurus-Auriga dark clouds (e.g.
Low Mass Star Formation in the Taurus-Auriga Clouds
Ammonia is thought to form NH via a three step mechanism involving first the photodissociation via reaction 34 to NH2 + H. This is then followed by the photodissociation of NH2 via reaction 35 to form NH, which then undergoes photodissociation via reaction 36.
The temporal changes in the emission spectrum of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 after Deep Impact
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