aluminium

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n aluminium a silvery ductile metallic element found primarily in bauxite
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n Aluminium (Chem) same as aluminum, chiefly British in usage.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n aluminium Chemical symbol Al; atomic weight 27.1. A metal of silver-white color and brilliant luster, about as hard as zinc, very malleable and ductile, highly sonorous, and a good conductor of heat and electricity. Its most remarkable character is its low specific gravity (2.56), which is about one third that of iron and less than that of marble. It does not tarnish in the air, and even in a molten state does not oxidize; its melting-point is somewhat lower than that of silver. Aluminium in combination with oxygen (Al2O3) forms the common earth alumina, which exists in nature as the mineral corundum, of which the ruby, sapphire, and emery are varieties; the hydrated sesquioxid exists as the minerals diaspore, gibbsite, and bauxite. Alumina also enters into the composition of a very large number of minerals, the most important of which are the feldspars. From the decomposition of these, clay (kaolin, etc.) is produced, which is essentially a hydrated silicate of aluminium. Among other important minerals containing aluminium are the silicates andalusite, cyanite. fibrolite, topaz, and all of the zeolites; the fluoride of aluminium and sodium, cryolite, from which the metal is reduced; the oxid of aluminium and magnesium, spinel; the sulphates aluminite, alum-stone, the alums, etc.; the phosphates turquoise, lazulite, etc.; the carbonate dawsonite, and many others. It is estimated that in its various compounds aluminium forms about one twelfth of the crust of the earth. In consequence of its very low specific gravity, freedom from tarnish, non-poisonous qualities, and ease of working, aluminium is a most valuable metal, and would be extensively used if it were not for the cost of separating it from the combinations in which it occurs in nature. It is used, however, to a limited extent by itself and in alloys for physical apparatus and other articles in which lightness and great strength are necessary. The cap of the Washington monument, which forms the tip of its lightning-rod, is a pyramidal mass of aluminium weighing 100 ounces. Also written aluminum.
    • n aluminium Aluminium melts at 654.5° C., and the tensile strength of bars made of it is about 28,000 pounds a square inch. The commercial production of the metal began about 1888, the process most largely used, as at Pittsburg and Niagara, being that of Hall, in which anhydrous alumina from bauxite is dissolved in a bath of fused cryolite in the presence of carbon and electrolyzed by a current of 6 or 7 volts and 7,000 amperes. The price has been brought down from $15 to 30 cents a pound, and the annual output increased from 3 to many thousand tons per annum. The only moderate strength of the metal, certain difficulties in working it (as, for instance, in soldering), and its chemical alterability under some conditions have tended to limit its applications. Among the more recent uses made of it may be mentioned the etching of designs for theatrical and other posters, substitution for copper in wire for the transmission of electric currents, the manufacture of a silver-like paint from the powder, and the production of a very high temperature by rapid combustion of the powder in admixture with sodium dioxid. See aluminothermics.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Aluminium al-ū-min′i-um the metallic base of alumina; a metal somewhat resembling silver, and remarkable for its lightness, now made from Bauxite
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. alumen,. See Alum
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
First called Aluminum by the discoverer, Sir H. Davy (1778-1829).

Usage

In literature:

Methane is yielded by aluminium and beryllium carbides, and, mixed with hydrogen, by manganese carbide.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 3" by Various
The latter are of aluminium bronze.
"Harper's Round Table, September 17, 1895" by Various
Similar, but less definite compounds, are formed with the oxides of lead, manganese, barium, iron, aluminium and chromium.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 5" by Various
In this hand he held a thick rod some three feet in length which seemed to me to be made of aluminium.
"The New Gulliver and Other Stories" by Barry Pain
Some metals, as aluminium and cast iron, are less easily soldered than others.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Slice 4" by Various
It is a calcium and aluminium silicate, CaAl2Si2O3, and crystallizes in the anorthic system.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 2" by Various
A small shutter of aluminium foil is attached to the wires at the optical centre.
"Wireless Transmission of Photographs" by Marcus J. Martin
Aluminium is obtained by electricity acting in the process called electrolysis.
"The Romance of War Inventions" by Thomas W. Corbin
It is also soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis, with evolution of hydrogen a behaviour similar to that shown by aluminium.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 3, Slice 6" by Various
Cochineal dyes a purple colour with chromium mordant, crimson with aluminium, scarlet with tin, and grey or slate with iron.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 8" by Various
Aluminium, iron, platinum and many other metals may thus take up so much carbon as to become brittle and unforgeable.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 9, Slice 2" by Various
On this occasion the aluminium box was lowered till it touched the ground.
"Billy Barcroft, R.N.A.S." by Percy F. Westerman
Bauxite, which is used in the manufacture of aluminium, is obtained from France, Styria and Ireland.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 9, Slice 8" by Various
In the few exceptional cases the partitions are either of glass or of aluminium.
"The Preparation of Plantation Rubber" by Sidney Morgan
It was found that the arrack corroded the aluminium, and the measures soon leaked.
"Omens and Superstitions of Southern India" by Edgar Thurston
The backbone was a light but very rigid tube of aluminium steel, 15 ft. in length, and a little more than 2 in.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 10, Slice 5" by Various
A powerful fan drove the current of air through a number of perforated aluminium plates covered with the paste.
"King of the Air" by Herbert Strang
For this trick you require two large aluminium drinking cups just alike.
"Water Wizardry" by Arthur Ainslie
Aluminium and zinc are alike in appearance and afford the necessary disparity in weight.
"Magic" by Ellis Stanyon
The finest torrent in Scotland is about to be diverted from its course and used for aluminium works.
"Critical Studies" by Ouida
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In poetry:

They clad me all in purple,
They hung me with festoons,
My singing-robes were spangled
With aluminium moons.
"A Vision Splendid" by Victor James Daley

In news:

China Clay / Aluminium Silicate.
Oil and aluminium down too.
Rio Tinto's Aluminium Woes Continue.
Robert Indiana HOPE (Red/Violet) Painted Aluminium sculpture, 2008.
DuPont Refinish has extended its range of Cromax® Pro special mixing tints by adding WB1735 Ultra Fine Aluminium which is used in OEM colours such as Nissan KAB, Mercedes 047 Alubeam Silver and BMW Pure Silver.
Rio Tinto 's Aluminium Woes Continue.
A promising alternative to chromate conversion coatings on aluminium is the trivalent chromium–based environmentally friendly conversion coating.
Nitrex Metal Inc (Montreal) has installed a turnkey nitriding system at Erbsloh Aluminium GmbH.
India's Vedanta Aluminium resumes Odisha refinery at reduced capacity.
Aluminium Boats Australia ( ABA ) has delivered its latest high speed ferry, a 98.4 ft catamaran designed by Sydney-based One2three Naval Architects.
This time they decided to go with the aluminium for the weight but are left with this problem of the scratches.
Either high or low ph environments will strip the anodising (what is effectively a layer of aluminium oxide) from the underlying metal.
Excluding costs related to environmental remediation and the settlement of a lawsuit brought by Aluminium Bahrain BSC (ALBH), Alcoa had per-share profit of 3 cents.
Alcoa settled a four-year racketeering lawsuit brought by Aluminium Bahrain, the state-owned smelter known as Alba, both companies said yesterday.
You know those aluminium Sigg bottles you ran out to buy, replacing all your Nalgene ones last year because of fears around bisphenol A.
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In science:

To avoid introducing hydrogen in the beam, no conventional glue can ever be applied! Instead, the crystals are attached with thin aluminium wire or PTFE film (plumbing tape).
Crystals for neutron scattering studies of quantum magnetism
Table 1: The relative decrease in the calorimeter signal and the average and RMS values of the presampler signal spectra for each electron energy and each aluminium absorber thickness used in the test beam studies.
The Presampler for the Forward and Rear Calorimeter in the ZEUS Detector
The strip pitch is 20 µm but only every 6th strip is AC coupled to an aluminium readout line.
The ZEUS Micro Vertex Detector
Mercedes Molla described galactic chemical evolution models with a new set of yields for carbon and nitrogen, and Amanda Karakas discussed the production of aluminium (including 26Al) and heavy magnesium isotopes in AGB stars.
Summary Talk
An equivalent solid membrane dish of the same area would be much heavier, or about 2000 kg if one uses a very thin membrane of 1 µm thick and with aluminium mass density.
Motivation and possibilities of affordable low-frequency radio interferometry in space
These tolerances correspond mainly to the precision to which the lenses were mounted within a brass tube and kept separated by thin aluminium spacer rings.
Testing and design of a lens system for atom trapping and fluorescence detection
Both detectors consist of an aluminium cylindrical bar having a mass of 2.3 tons.
Studying the coincidence excess between EXPLORER and NAUTILUS during 1998
They are made from glass, slumped and polished and then coated with aluminium and anodized at a dedicated facility on-site.
Status and Performance of the First VERITAS telescope
Blank and background (BB) count rates were not distinguishable as well as those for aluminium foils and paper filters (AP).
Leakage Tests for Am-241 Solid Sources Used for Liquid Xenon Detector Monitoring
The modules are connected by aluminium cables to patch panels on which the optoboards are placed.
Optical Readout in a Multi-Module System Test for the ATLAS Pixel Detector
The present results have to be contrasted with the observed profiles obtained on the impacted aluminium sample after 1 s or on the sonotrode.
Granular gases in mechanical engineering: on the origin of heterogeneous ultrasonic shot peening
Density, specific heat and thermal conductivity of aluminium and polyurethane.
Theoretical foundations for on-ground tests of LISA PathFinder thermal diagnostics
Amplitude damping factor on the interface between aluminium and polyurethane at 1 mHz, for various sizes of the insulating device.
Theoretical foundations for on-ground tests of LISA PathFinder thermal diagnostics
We use thin copper wires (κCu = 401 Wm−1K−1 ) of radius Rwire = 0.1 mm, and assume some fiducial parameters for the size of the aluminium core, a1 , the wire length, ℓwire , the number of connecting wires, N , and the frequency, ω/2π .
Theoretical foundations for on-ground tests of LISA PathFinder thermal diagnostics
The choice of materials is flexible, so aluminium and polyurethane, which are easily available in the market, has been adopted.
Theoretical foundations for on-ground tests of LISA PathFinder thermal diagnostics
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