acid

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • adj acid having the characteristics of an acid "an acid reaction"
    • adj acid harsh or corrosive in tone "an acerbic tone piercing otherwise flowery prose","a barrage of acid comments","her acrid remarks make her many enemies","bitter words","blistering criticism","caustic jokes about political assassination, talk-show hosts and medical ethics","a sulfurous denunciation","a vitriolic critique"
    • adj acid being sour to the taste
    • n acid street name for lysergic acid diethylamide
    • n acid any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Every day the human stomach produces about 2 liters of hydrochloric acid
    • Acid A sour substance.
    • Acid Of or pertaining to an acid; as, acid reaction.
    • Acid (Chem) One of a class of compounds, generally but not always distinguished by their sour taste, solubility in water, and reddening of vegetable blue or violet colors. They are also characterized by the power of destroying the distinctive properties of alkalies or bases, combining with them to form salts, at the same time losing their own peculiar properties. They all contain hydrogen, united with a more negative element or radical, either alone, or more generally with oxygen, and take their names from this negative element or radical. Those which contain no oxygen are sometimes called hydracids in distinction from the others which are called oxygen acids or oxacids.
    • Acid Sour, sharp, or biting to the taste; tart; having the taste of vinegar: as, acid fruits or liquors. Also fig.: Sour-tempered. "He was stern and his face as acid as ever."
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: LSD is made from lysergic acid, which is found in ergot, a type of fungus
    • acid Sour, sharp, or biting to the taste; tasting like vinegar: as, acid fruits or liquors.
    • n acid Originally, a substance possessing a sour taste like that of vinegar; in modern chemical use, a name given to a large number of compounds which do not necessarily possess this property. It does not appear that very great importance was at any time attached to sourness as a characteristic of acids from a chemical point of view. The following properties are common to most acids: 1st, solubility in water; 2d, a sour taste (in some acids, on account of their corrosiveness, this property can be perceived only after dilution with a large quantity of water); 3d, the power of turning vegetable blues to red; 4th, the power of decomposing most carbonates, and displacing the carbonic acid with effervescence; 5th, the power of destroying more or less completely the characteristic properties of alkalis, at the same time losing their own distinguishing characters, forming salts. In modern chemistry an acid may be termed a salt of hydrogen, or it may be defined as a compound containing one or more atoms of hydrogen which become displaced by a metal, or by a radical possessing to a certain extent metallic functions. An acid containing one such atom of hydrogen is said to be monobasic, one containing two such atoms bibasic, etc. Acids of a greater basicity than unity are frequently termed polybasic acids. When an acid contains oxygen, its name is generally formed by adding the terminal -ic either to the name of the element with which the oxygen is united or to an abbreviation of that name. Thus, sulphur forms with oxygen sulphuric acid; nitrogen, nitric acid; and phosphorus, phosphoric acid. But it frequently happens that the same element forms two acids with oxygen; and in this case the acid that contains the larger amount of oxygen receives the terminal syllable -ic, while that containing less oxygen is made to end in -ous. Thus, we have sulphurous, nitrous, and phosphorous acid, each containing a smaller proportion of oxygen than that necessary to form respectively sulphuric, nitric, and phosphoric acid. In some instances, however, the same element forms more than two acids with oxygen, in which case the two Greek words ὑπό (hypo-), under, and ὑπέρ (hyper-), over, are prefixed to the name of the acid. Thus, an acid of sulphur containing less oxygen than sulphurous acid is termed hyposulphurous acid; and another acid of the same element containing, in proportion to sulphur, more oxygen than sulphurous acid and less than sulphuric, might be named either hypersulphurous or hyposulphuric acid; but the latter term has been adopted. The prefix per- is frequently substituted for hyper-.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Aspirin went on sale as the first pharmaceutical drug in 1899, after Felix Hoffman, a German chemist at the drug company Bayer, successfully modified Salicylic Acid, a compound found in willow bark to produce Aspirin.
    • adj Acid as′id sharp: sour
    • n Acid a sour substance:
    • n Acid (chem.) one of a class of substances, usually sour, which turn vegetable blues to red, and combine with alkalies, metallic oxides, &c. to form salts
    • ***

Quotations

  • Seneca
    Seneca
    “Anger: an acid that can do more harm to the vessel in which it is stored than to anything on which it is poured.”
  • Source Unknown
    Source Unknown
    “Anger is an acid that can do more harm to the vessel in which it is stored than to anything on which it is poured.”
  • Andrew Jensen
    Andrew Jensen
    “The real acid test of courage is to be just your honest self when everybody is trying to be like somebody else.”
  • Henry Ward Beecher
    Henry%20Ward%20Beecher
    “Fear secretes acids; but love and trust are sweet juices.”
  • Lord Trent
    Lord Trent
    “I learned very early in my life in Whitehall, the acid test of any political question is; What is the Alternative?”
  • Dorothy Parker
    Dorothy%20Parker
    “Razors pain you; rivers are damp; acids stain you; and drugs cause cramp. Guns aren't lawful; nooses give; gas smells awful; you might as well live.”

Idioms

Acid test - An acid test is something that proves whether something is good, effective, etc, or not.
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. acidus, sour, fr. the root ak, to be sharp: cf. F. acide,. Cf. Acute

Usage

In literature:

But in a small quantity as this, there is no possible danger of accident if the acid is poured on the water.
"Hand-Loom Weaving" by Mattie Phipps Todd
The action of kephir in preventing intestinal putrefaction depends on the lactic acid bacillus which it contains.
"The Bacillus of Long Life" by Loudon Douglas
The acid of the apple is usually considered to be malic acid, but really there are several acids mixed together.
"The Apple" by Various
C.; it contains most of the carbolic acid and naphthalene.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 5" by Various
If a dark trace remains, it sometimes may be removed by oxalic acid if the spot has not been burned by the hot tar.
"Book Repair and Restoration" by Mitchell Buck
Shaft furnaces are in use for ores rich in sulphur, and where it is desirable to convert the waste gases into sulphuric acid.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 7, Slice 3" by Various
The acid fermentation of milk is often called the lactic acid fermentation.
"Outlines of dairy bacteriology" by H. L. Russell
To write on metals, take half a pound of nitric acid and one ounce muriatic acid.
"Paper and Printing Recipes" by J. Sawtelle Ford
Concentrated acids convert it into a resin.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 7, Slice 6" by Various
Acid was a matter of life for Anti.
"Accidental Flight" by Floyd L. Wallace
The drop of acid boils up and gives off the pungent odour of carbonic acid gas.
"Earth and Sky Every Child Should Know" by Julia Ellen Rogers
Halogen acids convert it into monohalogen fatty acids, and the halogens themselves convert it into dihalogen fatty acids.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 4" by Various
The mineral is decomposed by hydrochloric acid with separation of gelatinous silica.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 5" by Various
Boracic acid colors the flame green when the substance has been moistened with glycerine.
"The Elements of Blowpipe Analysis" by Frederick Hutton Getman
It is excreted by the kidneys as various substances, including campho-glycuric acid (Schmiedeberg).
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 2" by Various
It is rapidly absorbed by an ammoniacal or acid (hydrochloric acid) solution of cuprous chloride.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 3" by Various
In fact they obtained rosolic acid from magenta by the action of nitrous acid on the latter.
"Coal" by Raphael Meldola
This last change is probably hastened by the carbonic acid of the atmosphere uniting with the soda.
"Principles of Geology" by Charles Lyell
The salts of the acid are, however, very stable, and are known as arsenites.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 6" by Various
C. Nitrous acid converts it into malic acid, HOOC.CHOH.CH2.COOH.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 7" by Various
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In poetry:

Into the goblet
The lemon's juice pour;
Acid is ever
Life's innermost core.
"Punch Song" by Friedrich von Schiller
I am too young to grow a beard
But yes man it was me you heard
In dirty denim and dark glasses.
I look through everyone who passes
But ask him clear, I do not plead,
Keys Lids acid and speed.
"Street Song" by Thom Gunn
Join me, and I will take you there,
Your head will cut out from your hair
Into whichever self you choose.
With Midday Mick man you can't lose,
I'll get you anything you need.
Keys lids acid and speed.
"Street Song" by Thom Gunn
He chipped it with a hammer and he chopped it with a bill,
He poured sulphuric acid on the edge of it, until
This terrible Avenger of the Majesty of Law
Was far less like a hatchet than a dissipated saw.
"Annie Protheroe. A Legend of Stratford-le-Bow" by William Schwenck Gilbert
Now here, the best I've got to show,
Made by a righteous cat I know.
Pure acid - it will scrape your brain,
And make it something else again.
Call it heaven, call it hell,
Join me and see the world I sell.
"Street Song" by Thom Gunn
"That's tore it," I remarks be'ind me 'and.
The parson nods. 'E's smilin' now all gay.
Ten minutes later, an' the 'ole thing's planned
Fer Rose's 'oliday.
We put the acid on, an' scold an' tease
Till she agrees.
"Rose" by C J Dennis

In news:

Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma and Intercept Pharmaceuticals Announce Agreement to Develop and Commercialize Obeticholic Acid (INT-747) for Chronic Liver Disease.
Acid reflux is common among children with asthma, and in recent years there has been a dramatic increase in prescriptions of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for children with asthma.
Healthy ear canal skin has an acidic pH.
Intact protein LC–MS detected a mass variance of 62 Da and peptide mapping located a difference of two amino acids.
Sunflower Oil Fatty Acid Profiles.
Andrew Zimmerman at Sepia does a knockout octopus confit , served with salty- sweet black-olive honey, pleasantly acidic p reserved lemon, and perky mint salsa verde over a bed of fried chickpeas dusted with smoked paprika.
Nearby developers and the operator of a water company contend the state Department of Environmental Quality should not have issued a permit to Curis Resources to pump sulfuric acid into the ground.
They found threats from global warming driving up sea temperatures and increasing the acidity of ocean waters.
Aqueous acidic solutions containing chlorides can cause pitting, crevice corrosion , and stress corrosion cracking depending on the temperatures involved.
Kind of like the DIY crop Angelina Jolie wore as Acid Burn in Hackers, but with a minimalist precision suited to a chick who has probably hacked Ikea.
Fatty Acids Enriched Via Crystallization .
They're also for keeping your stiff neck from aching, your sinuses from congesting, your acids from refluxing, your snores from snorting, your.
Klaunig all the while pays close attention to acidity, creaminess and curd quality (high-fat curds are squishier, high-protein curds are firmer).
Al Pacino, Bobby Cannavale, David Harbour and Richard Schiff are starring in a new Broadway production of Glengarry Glen Ross, David Mamet 's acidic comic-drama about desperate real-estate men.
So it is with lead-acid batteries.
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In science:

However, in the Orch OR theory, the authors contemplate separation only at the level of the individual atomic nuclei of amino acids comprising the protein.
Quantum Computation in Brain Microtubules? Decoherence and Biological Feasibility
This overlooks the negative charges borne by amino acid side groups and numerous other charges associated with tubulin, all of which attract counterions from the surrounding medium.
Quantum Computation in Brain Microtubules? Decoherence and Biological Feasibility
Under more acidic conditions, the negative charge of the carboxy-terminal region is reduced by associated hydrogen ions.
Quantum Computation in Brain Microtubules? Decoherence and Biological Feasibility
Due to the exposure of negatively charged amino acids in the C-terminus, a Debye layer is formed, screening thermal fluctuations due to the stronger Coulomb interactions over distances within the Debye length.
Quantum Computation in Brain Microtubules? Decoherence and Biological Feasibility
In addition it will measure its chirality (handedness) of the organics to answer the question of whether the left handedness of the amino acids of life on earth originated from the interstellar dust which aggregated to form comets.
Cosmic Dust in the 21st Century
There is reason to believe that the interstellar dust in the presolar nebula had an excess of lefthanded amino acids (Cronin & Pizzarello 1997; Engel & Macko 1997).
Cosmic Dust in the 21st Century
The oxygen is present in aldehydes and carboxylic acids, carbon oxides and of course, water.
Cosmic Dust in the 21st Century
Saenger, Principles of Nucleic Acid Structure (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984).
Osmotic Properties of Charged Cylinders: Critical Evaluation of Counterion Condensation Theory
Figure 1: Raw atomic force micrograph of pore morphologies produced by anodization of an aluminum foil in oxalic acid.
Prospects for a Quantum Dynamic Random Access Memory (Q-DRAM)
Barnett and Pegg “acid-test” for quantum phase theories.
The quantum phase problem: steps toward a resolution
Other examples include polycrystalline domains in metals, ceramics, magnetic domains, biological tissues and mono layers of fatty acids on surface of water.
Inhomogenous Poisson Networks and Random Cellular Structures
A protein is composed by a long chain of a few hundred amino-acids and its chemical composition is specified by the sequence of aminoacids (primary structure).
Complex Systems: a Physicist's Viewpoint
The RHP model is characterized by quenched random monomer-monomer interactions, meant to mimic the variety of interactions between amino-acids in random sequences.
Embedding a Native State into a Random Heteropolymer Model: The Dynamic Approach
Why are real proteins not glassy? Evidently, nature has tuned amino acid sequences to avoid glassy behavior.
Embedding a Native State into a Random Heteropolymer Model: The Dynamic Approach
Thus, what we find out about our model may be relevant to proteins (with 20 different amino acids).
Embedding a Native State into a Random Heteropolymer Model: The Dynamic Approach
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