absolute

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • adj absolute perfect or complete or pure "absolute loyalty","absolute silence","absolute truth","absolute alcohol"
    • adj absolute not capable of being violated or infringed "infrangible human rights"
    • adj absolute complete and without restriction or qualification; sometimes used informally as intensifiers "absolute freedom","an absolute dimwit","a downright lie","out-and-out mayhem","an out-and-out lie","a rank outsider","many right-down vices","got the job through sheer persistence","sheer stupidity"
    • adj absolute not limited by law "an absolute monarch"
    • adj absolute expressing finality with no implication of possible change "an absolute guarantee to respect the nation's authority"
    • n absolute something that is conceived or that exists independently and not in relation to other things; something that does not depend on anything else and is beyond human control; something that is not relative "no mortal being can influence the absolute"
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Ancient Chinese artists freely painted scenes of nakedness and sex. However, they would absolutely never depict a bare female foot.
    • Absolute Authoritative; peremptory. "The peddler stopped, and tapped her on the head,
      With absolute forefinger, brown and ringed."
    • Absolute Capable of being thought or conceived by itself alone; unconditioned; non-relative. "To Cusa we can indeed articulately trace, word and thing, the recent philosophy of the absolute ."
    • Absolute Complete in itself; perfect; consummate; faultless; as, absolute perfection; absolute beauty. "So absolute she seems,
      And in herself complete."
    • n Absolute (Geom) In a plane, the two imaginary circular points at infinity; in space of three dimensions, the imaginary circle at infinity.
    • Absolute Loosed from any limitation or condition; uncontrolled; unrestricted; unconditional; as, absolute authority, monarchy, sovereignty, an absolute promise or command; absolute power; an absolute monarch.
    • Absolute Loosed from, or unconnected by, dependence on any other being; self-existent; self-sufficing.
    • Absolute (Gram) Not immediately dependent on the other parts of the sentence in government; as, the case absolute . See Ablative absolute, under Ablative.
    • Absolute Positive; clear; certain; not doubtful. "I am absolute 't was very Cloten."
    • Absolute (Chem) Pure; unmixed; as, absolute alcohol.
    • Absolute Viewed apart from modifying influences or without comparison with other objects; actual; real; -- opposed to relative and comparative; as, absolute motion; absolute time or space.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: No species of wild plant produces a flower or blossom that is absolutely black, and so far, none has been developed artificially.
    • absolute Free from every restriction; unconditional: as, the only absolute necessity is logical necessity; absolute skepticism; absolute proof.
    • absolute Perfect; complete; entire; possessed as a quality in the highest degree, or possessing the essential characteristics of the attribute named in the highest degree: as, absolute purity; absolute liberty.
    • absolute Hence Perfect; free from imperfection: sometimes applied to persons.
    • absolute Fixed; determined: not merely provisional; irrevocable.
    • absolute Viewed independently of other similar things; not considered with reference to other similar things as standards; not comparative merely: opposed to relative: as, absolute position; absolute velocity (see below). [Careful writers, without an explanation, or unless the context makes the meaning clear, do not use the word in this sense; so that, though it has always belonged to the word, it is considered as secondary.]
    • absolute Unlimited in certain essential respects; arbitrary; despotic: applied especially to a system of government in which the will of the sovereign is comparatively unhampered by laws or usage: as, an absolute monarchy.
    • absolute Certain; infallible.
    • absolute Domineering; peremptory; exacting strict obedience.
    • absolute Ultimate; not derived from anything else: as, an absolute principle. Immeasurable; not definable by measurement; not led up to by insensible gradations: as, the distinction between right and wrong is absolute.
    • absolute In grammar, standing out of the usual syntactical relation or construction: applied to the case of a noun and an adjunct in no relation of dependence upon the rest of the sentence, and defining the time or circumstances of an action: as, the genitive absolute in Greek, the ablative absolute in Latin, the locative absolute in Sanskrit, and the nominative absolute in English.
    • n absolute In metaphysics: That which is free from any restriction, or is unconditioned; hence, the ultimate ground of all things; God: as, it is absurd to place a limit to the power of the Absolute.
    • n absolute That which is perfect or complete: as, its beauty approaches the absolute. That which is independent of some or all relations; the non-relative.
    • n absolute In mathematics, a locus whose projective relation to any two elements may be considered as constituting the metrical relation of these elements to one another. All measurement is made by successive superpositions of a unit upon parts of the quantity to be measured. Now, in all shiftings of the standard of measurement, if this be supposed to be rigidly connected with an unlimited continuum superposed upon that in which lies the measured quantity, there will be a certain locus which will always continue unmoved, and to which, therefore, the scale of measurement can never be applied. This is the absolute. In order to establish a system of measurement along a line, we first put a scale of numbers on the line in such a manner that to every point of the line corresponds one number, and to every number one point. If then we take any second scale of numbers related in this manner to the points of the line, to any number, x, of the first scale, will correspond just one number, y, of the second. If this correspondence extends to imaginary points, x and y will be connected by an equation linear in x and linear in y, which may be written thus: xy + ax + by + c = 0. The scale will thus be shifted from x = 0 to y = 0 or x = −c′ a. In this shifting, two points of the scale remain unmoved, namely, those which satisfy the equation x + (a + b) x + c = 0. This pair of points, which may be really distinct, coincident, or imaginary, constitute the absolute. For a plane, the absolute is a curve of the second order and second class. For three-dimensional space it is a quadric surface. For the ordinary system of measurement in space, producing the Euclidean geometry, the absolute consists of two coincident planes joined along an imaginary circle, which circle is itself usually termed the absolute. See distance and anharmonic ratio.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • adj Absolute ab′sol-ūt free from limits or conditions: complete: unlimited: free from mixture: considered without reference to other things: unconditioned, unalterable: unrestricted by constitutional checks (said of a government): :
    • adj Absolute ab′sol-ūt (gram.) not immediately dependent
    • adj Absolute ab′sol-ūt (phil.) existing in and by itself without necessary relation to any other being: capable of being conceived of as unconditioned. In the sense of being finished, perfect, it may be considered as opposed to the Infinite; but, in the sense of being freed from restriction or condition, it is evident the Infinite itself must be absolute. Opposite schools differ on the question whether the Absolute can be known under conditions of consciousness
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Quotations

  • Gilbert K. Chesterton
    Gilbert%20K.%20Chesterton
    “Psychoanalysis is confession without absolution.”
  • Charlotte Saunders Cushman
    Charlotte Saunders Cushman
    “Art is an absolute mistress; she will not be coquetted with or slighted; she requires the most entire self-devotion, and she repays with grand triumphs.”
  • John Kenneth Galbraith
    John%20Kenneth%20Galbraith
    “There is certainly no absolute standard of beauty. That precisely is what makes its pursuit so interesting.”
  • Olin Miller
    Olin Miller
    “To be absolutely certain about something, one must know everything or nothing about it.”
  • Albert Schweitzer
    Albert%20Schweitzer
    “We cannot possibly let ourselves get frozen into regarding everyone we do not know as an absolute stranger.”
  • William M. Bulger
    William M. Bulger
    “There is never a better measure of what a person is than what he does when he is absolutely free to choose.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. absolutus, p. p. of absolvere,: cf. F. absolu,. See Absolve
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. absolutus, pa.p. of absolvĕre. See Absolve.

Usage

In literature:

They prepared to undo the work of absolutism by the hand of absolutism.
"Lectures on the French Revolution" by John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton
Such a wound was absolutely beyond explanation.
"The Seven Secrets" by William Le Queux
He is not absolutely subject to, and moulded by nature.
"Christianity and Greek Philosophy" by Benjamin Franklin Cocker
Abstract and absolute doctrines of right, when imported from France, fell flat upon the average Englishman.
"The English Utilitarians, Volume I." by Leslie Stephen
Transfer it from the boiling water to a beaker of absolute alcohol.
"The Elements of Bacteriological Technique" by John William Henry Eyre
I'm not an absolute cad, and I'm glad you are frank.
"The Dominant Dollar" by Will Lillibridge
His most characteristic peculiarity, however, is his absolute refusal to learn the rudiments of manners.
"A History of the French Novel, Vol. 2" by George Saintsbury
The bishops put forth a solemn censure of the absolution.
"Critical and Historical Essays, Volume III (of 3)" by Thomas Babington Macaulay
De Grost looked around him with absolutely unruffled composure.
"The Double Four" by E. Phillips Oppenheim
And there was absolutely no clue to anything elsewhere among his clothes.
"Somehow Good" by William de Morgan
ON THE CASE ABSOLUTE.
"A Handbook of the English Language" by Robert Gordon Latham
So far as this is true, the conflict between Hobbes and Aristotle is not absolute.
"Introduction to the Science of Sociology" by Robert E. Park
It is not absolutely certain how far these had gone; one word of discussion may be allowed on the matter.
"A History of England Principally in the Seventeenth Century, Volume I (of 6)" by Leopold von Ranke
Never before had she been in the company of so absolutely charming a companion.
"The School Queens" by L. T. Meade
Then an absolutely unexpected thing happened.
"In the Musgrave Ranges" by Jim Bushman
She had seemed to him the utterly certain, satisfied, absolute, excluding him.
"The Rainbow" by D. H. (David Herbert) Lawrence
Stephen, thus rejected, entered the legal profession by a back door, which, if not reputable, was not absolutely closed.
"The Life of Sir James Fitzjames Stephen, Bart., K.C.S.I." by Sir Leslie Stephen
Here his investigation of coral reef formation absolutely captivated him.
"The Meaning of Evolution" by Samuel Christian Schmucker
He was simple, conscientious, absolutely truthful, full of prejudices, and weak-minded.
"Is He Popenjoy?" by Anthony Trollope
She's an absolute Freemason for secrecy.
"Loyal to the School" by Angela Brazil
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In poetry:

``I want your absolution, dear,
For whatso wrong I may have done;
My conscience waneth less severe,
"The Door Of Humility" by Alfred Austin
All heaven, in every baby born,
All absolute of earthly leaven,
Reveals itself, though man may scorn
All heaven.
"Babyhood" by Algernon Charles Swinburne
'Tis this in Nelly pleases me,
'Tis this enchants my soul
For absolutely in my breast
She reigns without control.
"Handsome Nell" by Robert Burns
"Right heavily upon your head
He'll lay his hand of steel;
And with his trusty partisan
Your absolution deal."—
"The Battle of Sempach" by Sir Walter Scott
It was useless to tell a man
So opinionated as Kellerman
That he was absolutely balmy
To think of standing at Valmy.
"Clerihew – Kellerman" by Edmund Clerihew Bentley
If frequently I fret and fume,
And absolutely will not smile,
I err in company with Hume,
Old Socrates and T. Carlyle.
"Erring In Company" by Franklin Pierce Adams

In news:

"I absolutely love these events," says outdoor living designer and TV garden host P.
It's an absolute dream-come-true for gin & tonic lovers: the niche-y Gin Palace, which just opened on Avenue A, is serving gin & tonics on tap.
The one absolute tradition was gingerbread men .
They got behind their candidate, and they had issues they felt were moral absolutes compelling them to vote for Mitt Romney.
Spring Into ABSolute Gluteal Shape.
Description One of the most important things you can give to your children is absolutely free.
You may remember I even blogged about Michael Vick, a guy who I absolutely hated as a quarterback and a human being.
Government building s are absolutely part of the mix at that site.
Absolutely perfect in cold weather.
The Romney campaign is out with a new attack on Newt Gingrich this morning which, if taken in the right direction, could be absolutely toxic for the former speaker's campaign.
October, November, and December are my absolute favorite months of the year to whip up baked goods like apple brunch cake.
How about if he tells us the truth about his gas and oil ventures or how he expects to be a decent congressman with absolutely no experience or seniority.
It's not generally known that Groucho Marx, that king of comic chaos, had an absolute passion for the precise, Victorian-era comic operas of Gilbert and Sullivan.
One thing that is absolute in video production: whether you're a hobbyist or a pro - the audience might accept weak video, but will not forgive poor audio.
The legendary Barbra Streisand plays Seth Rogen's mom in the upcoming film 'The Guilt Trip ,' and the pairing looks absolutely hilarious.
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In science:

Given M ∈ GL(n, R), the absolute Jordan form of M is the matrix obtained from the Jordan form for M over C by replacing each diagonal entry with its absolute value, and rearranging the Jordan blocks in some canonical order.
Problems on the geometry of finitely generated solvable groups
Condition for absolute security: Shannon’s condition for absolute security is that eavesdropper has to depend on guess for absolutely secure system.
A simple unbreakable code
The absolute astrometry was determined following the method in §3.1 of H01; absolute X-ray source positions in the HDF-N itself are accurate to 0.4′′ or better.
The Chandra Deep Survey of the Hubble Deep Field North Area. IV. An Ultradeep Image of the HDF-N
Remark that V is topologically absolutely irreducible iff V ⋆ is algebraically absolutely irreducible.
Classification of finite simple Lie conformal superalgebras
Let < L > be the average stellar intensity (that is, the average number of collected photons), ∆L the absolute amplitude, A = ∆L/ < L > the rela√< L > the mean absolute error tive amplitude, and ǫ ∼ on the measurement.
The effects of blending on the light curve shape of Cepheids
In other words, every splitting of an absolutely simple module is absolutely simple.
Very simple representations: variations on a theme of Clifford
Then the G-module V is very simple if and only if al l the fol lowing conditions hold: (i) The G-module V is absolutely simple; (ii) The G-module V does not admit a projective absolutely simple splitting; (iii) The G-module V is not induced from a representation of a proper subgroup of finite index in G.
Very simple representations: variations on a theme of Clifford
Since the PSL(2, Fq )-module QB is not absolutely simple , the G′ -module is also not absolutely simple.
Very simple representations: variations on a theme of Clifford
In other words, we prove that the absolute minimum of the action integral among 2π-periodic loops in H 1 is the relative equilibrium solution whose central configuration is an absolute minimum of the potential among all the configurations that generate a simple choreography.
Action minimizing orbits in the n-body problem with simple choreography constraint
Ferrario, shows in that the square and the pentagon are the absolute minima for 4 and 5 bodies respectively, while if n ≥ 6 the n-gon is not anymore the absolute minimizer; but if we take into account just central configurations that generates a simple choreography, we have in a confirmation of our result.
Action minimizing orbits in the n-body problem with simple choreography constraint
The analisys of the minimizers of the action in a rotating system suggest the existence of saddle critical points; in fact in many cases we have an infinity of absolute minima, in other we proved the existence of absolute minima, but we can compute numerically other relative minima.
Action minimizing orbits in the n-body problem with simple choreography constraint
Let us insert these formulas to the left-hand side of formula (4.16), carry out the multiplications, and let us bound the absolute value of the sum obtained in such a way as the sum of the absolute value of these terms.
An estimate about multiple stochastic integrals with respect to a normalized empirical measure
The p−adic numbers are basically the rational numbers together with a ”p−adic absolute value” whose properties differ (strongly) from the ones of the usual absolute value.
On Markovian behaviour of $p$-adic random dynamical systems
This does not affect our original problem since z takes on only a finite set of values.) An alternating sum of ∇z (x, t) is then, in absolute value, at most the absolute value of the alternating sum of the approximation p(t, x + z) − p(t, x) and the sum of the absolute values of the errors.
Simulating a Random Walk with Constant Error
After any term in the sequence the absolute value of sum of the subsequent terms is smal ler than the absolute value of the preceeding term.
Measure convolution semigroups and non-infinitely divisible probability distributions
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