abacus

Definitions

  • Abacus for Calculations
    Abacus for Calculations
  • WordNet 3.6
    • n abacus a calculator that performs arithmetic functions by manually sliding counters on rods or in grooves
    • n abacus a tablet placed horizontally on top of the capital of a column as an aid in supporting the architrave
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Additional illustrations & photos:

Abacus in architecture Abacus in architecture

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Abacus A board, tray, or table, divided into perforated compartments, for holding cups, bottles, or the like; a kind of cupboard, buffet, or sideboard.
    • Abacus A calculating table or frame; an instrument for performing arithmetical calculations by balls sliding on wires, or counters in grooves, the lowest line representing units, the second line, tens, etc. It is still employed in China.
    • Abacus A table or tray strewn with sand, anciently used for drawing, calculating, etc.
    • Abacus (Arch) A tablet, panel, or compartment in ornamented or mosaic work.
    • Abacus (Arch) The uppermost member or division of the capital of a column, immediately under the architrave. See Column.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n abacus A tray strewn with dust or sand, used in ancient times for calculating.
    • n abacus A contrivance for calculating, consisting of beads or balls strung on wires or rods set in a frame. The abacus was used, with some variations in form, by the Greeks and Romans, and is still in every-day use in many eastern countries, from Russia to Japan, for even the most complex calculations. The sand-strewn tray is supposed to have been introduced from Babylon into Greece by Pythagoras, who taught both arithmetic and geometry upon it; hence this form is sometimes called abacus Pythagoricus. In the form with movable balls, these are used simply as counters to record the successive stages of a mental operation. The sum shown in the annexed engraving of a Chinese abacus (called swanpan, or “reckoning-board”) is 5,196,301.
    • n abacus In architecture: The slab or plinth which forms the upper member of the capital of a column or pillar, and upon which rests, in classic styles, the lower surface of the architrave. In the Greek Doric it is thick and square, without sculptured decoration; in the Ionic order it is thinner, and ornamented with moldings on the sides; in the Corinthian also it is ornamented, and has concave sides and truncated corners. In medieval architecture the entablature was abandoned and the arch placed directly on the column or pillar; the abacus, however, was retained until the decline of the style. In Byzantine work it is often a deep block affiliated with classic examples. In western styles every variety of size, shape, and ornamentation occurs. The general use of a polygonal or round abacus, as more consonant with neighboring forms than the square shape, is one of the distinctive features of perfected Pointed architecture.
    • n abacus Any rectangular slab or piece; especially, a stone or marble tablet serving as a sideboard, shelf, or credence.
    • n abacus In Roman antiquity, a board divided into compartments, for use in a game of the nature of draughts, etc.
    • n abacus The mystic staff carried by the grand master of the Templars.
    • n abacus The structure and arrangement of the keys or pedals of a musical instrument.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Abacus ab′a-kus a counting-frame or table:
    • n Abacus ab′a-kus (archit.) a level tablet on the capital of a column, supporting the entablature
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. abacus, abax, Gr. 'a`bax
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L.—Gr. abax, abakos, a board for reckoning on.

Usage

In literature:

Though the month was February below it was May in the abacus of the column.
"Two on a Tower" by Thomas Hardy
The Red Wand stood by the abacus, rattling the brown beads with flying fingers, like a shroff.
"Dragon's blood" by Henry Milner Rideout
It was a kind of abacus.
"Our Legal Heritage, 5th Ed." by S. A. Reilly
When did the abacus, or the "tabel" referred to in my former letters, cease to be used as calculating instruments?
"Notes & Queries, No. 27. Saturday, May 4, 1850" by Various
Abacus, 52-4, 58, 61, 116.
"Manual Of Egyptian Archaeology And Guide To The Study Of Antiquities In Egypt" by Gaston Camille Charles Maspero
One of the robber chiefs, ordered to be choked with an abacus, which was suspended round his neck.
"The Pacha of Many Tales" by Frederick Marryat
The caps are simple and of an ordinary transitional form, each with a square abacus.
"Scottish Cathedrals and Abbeys" by Dugald Butler and Herbert Story
Bubnov holds that the forms first found in Europe are derived from ancient symbols used on the abacus, but that the zero is of Hindu origin.
"The Hindu-Arabic Numerals" by David Eugene Smith
Arithmetic is holding the tables of the abacus, and below her is sitting Abraham, its inventor.
"Lives of the Most Eminent Painters Sculptors and Architects" by Giorgio Vasari
Thus the fourth column from the west is his, and perhaps the fifth up to the abacus, which is convex and of limestone.
"Bell's Cathedrals: The Cathedral Church of Ripon" by Cecil Walter Charles Hallett
To the east the bema arch springs from the abacus level and all three apses have low vaults, a somewhat unusual arrangement.
"Byzantine Churches in Constantinople" by Alexander Van Millingen
The capitals are more curious than beautiful; the lower have clumsy, early-looking foliage and a large and curious abacus.
"Portuguese Architecture" by Walter Crum Watson
The square abacus may be taken as the best test.
"Our Homeland Churches and How to Study Them" by Sidney Heath
We have hitherto considered bell and abacus as both derived from the concentration of the cornice.
"The Stones of Venice, Volume I (of 3)" by John Ruskin
Note, finally, this contraction of the abacus.
"The Stones of Venice, Volume III (of 3)" by John Ruskin
The inside abutments are molded with a small column with a square abacus and base.
"Romanesque Art in Southern Manche: Album" by Marie Lebert
Abacus square, lower edge moulded.
"Architecture" by Thomas Roger Smith
We worked, not with slate and pencil, but with a rectangular wooden frame set with beads, resembling an abacus.
"A Japanese Boy" by Shigemi Shiukichi
The abacus of the capitals is generally made up of two bold round mouldings, with a deep hollow between.
"The New Gresham Encyclopedia" by Various
To the Abacus, prior to the Reformation, was added the printed A.
"Schools, School-Books and Schoolmasters" by W. Carew Hazlitt
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In poetry:

Bearing a musical inaudible abacus,
a slight censorious frown, and blue ribbons,
please come flying.
Facts and skyscrapers glint in the tide; Manhattan
is all awash with morals this fine morning,
so please come flying.
"Invitation to Miss Marianne Moore" by Elizabeth Bishop

In news:

Goldman's Sophisticated Investors, Abacus Emails, Deindustrialization.
The program, launched in 2010, addresses a rising trend in using the ancient abacus more prevalently in mathematics education.
Nineteen employees of Abacus Federal Savings Bank were charged by prosecutors in Manhattan with inflating the qualifications of mortgage applicants to meet federal loan standards.
Goldman Trader Tourre Says Abacus Deal Done by Jersey Firms.
Tension Over Goldman's Abacus Deals.
If chef Kent Rathbun's brilliantly orchestrated Abacus is anything, it's fancy.
The Abacus II from M&R (www.mrprint.com) is a two-station numbering press that features a 20-printhead duo-deck configuration that facilitates the printing of two-color numbers .
Readers' Choice: Abacus, 4511 McKinney Ave, 214-559-3111.
Has not said why it focused on just one Abacus deal, even though other mortgage securities created by Goldman and other banks had similar designs and disclosures.
Abacus launches BuyerPoint for store-based retailers.
Chef Kent Rathbun, Abacus, Rathbun's Blue Plate Kitchen and Jasper's locations in Texas.
8300-0045: Abacus Calculator Only (Abacus CE).
8300-0046: Abacus Single Work Station (Abacus SE).
8300-0047: Abacus Multi-Work Station (Abacus ME).
A few years ago James Gimzewski built a tiny working abacus whose beads consisted of carbon molecules .
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In science:

If an abacus contains at least one proper bead, then it is called proper.
On extensions and branching rules for modules close to completely splittable
The first formula of (2.1) shows what partition should be assigned to an abacus Λ.
On extensions and branching rules for modules close to completely splittable
In this connection the number of proper beads of an abacus is called its height.
On extensions and branching rules for modules close to completely splittable
Note that for every partition λ there is exactly one abacus Λ of a given shift such that λ = P (Λ).
On extensions and branching rules for modules close to completely splittable
Let c be an initial bead or an initial space of an abacus Λ.
On extensions and branching rules for modules close to completely splittable
Denote by Λc in the former case and by Λc in the latter case the abacus, whose value at n is 1 − Λ(n) if n = c or n = c − 1 and is Λ(n) if n 6= c and n 6= c − 1.
On extensions and branching rules for modules close to completely splittable
The abacus, whose value at n is 1 − Λ(n) if n = a or n = a − p and is Λ(n) if n 6= a and n 6= a − p, is said to be obtained from Λ by moving a one position up.
On extensions and branching rules for modules close to completely splittable
Moreover, if ¯Λ is the abacus obtained from Λ by moving the bead a one position up, then P ( ¯Λ) is the partition obtained from P (Λ) by removing hookΛ (a).
On extensions and branching rules for modules close to completely splittable
According to the definition of an abacus there are two numbers r1 and r2 such that row r of T is occupied solely by ◦ if r < r1 and is occupied solely by · if r > r2 .
On extensions and branching rules for modules close to completely splittable
Let us continue the functions ϕ and e defined in §2.2 to the set of all abaci so that P (ϕ(Λ)) = ϕ(P (Λ)) and e(Λ) = e(P (Λ)) for any abacus Λ.
On extensions and branching rules for modules close to completely splittable
Denote by a the greatest bead and by b the smallest space of this abacus.
On extensions and branching rules for modules close to completely splittable
We put ϕ(Λ) = Λ and e(Λ) = 0 for any improper abacus Λ.
On extensions and branching rules for modules close to completely splittable
In the sequel for any abacus Λ and a positive integer i, bΛ (i) denotes the ith bead of Λ counting from the greatest one and bΛ (i), where i 6 h(Λ), denotes the ith proper bead of Λ counting from the smallest one.
On extensions and branching rules for modules close to completely splittable
As we want to obtain an abacus again, we shall say that Hε is applicable to Λ if and only if (2.3) defines an abacus.
On extensions and branching rules for modules close to completely splittable
An abacus (partition) is cal led ε-big, if it is completely splittable of height |ε| and Hε is applicable to it.
On extensions and branching rules for modules close to completely splittable
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