Y

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n Y the 25th letter of the Roman alphabet
    • n y the 25th letter of the Roman alphabet
    • n Y a silvery metallic element that is common in rare-earth minerals; used in magnesium and aluminum alloys
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Hydroxyzine (a prescription drug) is the longest containing "x-y-z" in exact order. Next in line line is xyzzors, a scientific name for a nematode worm in biology.
    • Y an old method of printing thatAS. þæt ðæt) the “y” taking the place of the old letter “thorn” (þ). Cf. Ye, the.
    • Y an old method of printing the article theAS. þe), the “y” being used in place of the Anglo-Saxon thorn (þ). It is sometimes incorrectly pronounced . See The, and Thorn n., 4.
    • pron Y ī I.
    • n Y (Railroads) Something shaped like the letter Y; a forked piece resembling in form the letter Y.
    • Y Y, the twenty-fifth letter of the English alphabet, at the beginning of a word or syllable, except when a prefix (see Y-), is usually a fricative vocal consonant; as a prefix, and usually in the middle or at the end of a syllable, it is a vowel. See Guide to Pronunciation, §§ 145, 178-9, 272.It derives its form from the Latin Y, which is from the Greek Υ, originally the same letter as V. Etymologically, it is most nearly related to u i o, and j. g; as in full fill, AS. fyllan; E. crypt grotto; young juvenile; day, AS. dæg. See U I, and J G.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: The "y" in signs reading "ye olde.." is properly pronounced with a "th" sound, not "y". The "th" sound does not exist in Latin, so ancient Roman occupied (present day) England used the rune "thorn" to represent "th" sounds. With the advent of the printing press the character from the Roman alphabet which closest resembled thorn was the lower case "y".
    • y In electricity, the symbol for admittance, in alternating-current circuits. See admittance, 6.
    • y [lowercase] An abbreviation of yard.
    • y [lowercase or cap.] A corruption of the Anglo-Saxon character , equivalent to th, giving ye for the or thee; and, by contraction, ym for them; yn for then; yr for their; ys for this; yt for that. See def. 1.
    • y The twenty-fifth letter in the English alphabet. It has both a vowel and a consonant value. The character (as was pointed out under U) is the finally established Greek form of the sign added by the Greeks next after T (which had been the last Phenician letter) to express the oo(ö)-sound; U and V are other forms of it, which have kept more nearly their original place and value. As a Greek vowel, Y underwent a phonetic change which made of it the equivalent of the present French u, German ü, a rounded i, or a blending of the i- and u-sounds; and in the first century b. c. it was added by the Romans to their alphabet (which had till then ended with x) to express this sound in the Greek words borrowed into their language. With the same value it passed also into Anglo-Saxon use; but its sound gradually changed to that of a pure or unrounded i; and then its further development into a sign for both vowel and consonant is analogous with the partial differentiation of U or V and W (see W). It differs from w, the other character having the double value of vowel and consonant, in being not only exchanged with i in diphthongs and vowel-digraphs—as ai ay, ei ey, oi oy—but also commonly used by itself as the vowel of a syllable, as in by, deny, sylph, lying, taking the place of i both at the end of a word (since no proper English word except the pronoun I is allowed to end with i) and elsewhere, and constantly exchanging with i and ie in the different inflectional forms of the same words: as, pony, ponies; pretty, prettier; deny, denies, denied, denier; and so on. In Anglo-Saxon y properly expressed the mixed sound ii; but it early began to interchange with i, and in Middle English the two became convertible, y being often substituted for i as being more legible, and as affording, especially at the end of a word, an opportunity for a calligraphic flourish. Hence its present prevalence at the end of words, while in the inflected forms the older i is retained, families, the plural of familie, remaining beside family, the flourished spelling, without the original final e, of familie. As a vowel-sign, y is a superfluity in our alphabet, signifying nothing which would not be just as well signified by i. The consonant y is really a different letter, representing the Middle English ʒ, the Anglo-Saxon g. The value is that of a semivowel, related to the i-sounds (ĭ and ē) precisely as w is related to the u-sounds (u and oo or ö); if at all dwelt on or prolonged, it becomes an ĭ or ē. With this value it stands always before another vowel, as in yam, ye, yield, you, Yule. In very many words it is a matter of comparative indifference, and subject to constant variation in practice, whether an i before a vowel shall be pronounced as a vowel, making a separate syllable, or as y, combining into one syllable with its successor. In the respellings for pronunciation of this dictionary, such cases are often written with an i in the same syllable with the following vowel: examples are cor-dial, fo-lio, fa-shient, e-ras-tian. The semivowel y-sound is not only thus written with y and with i (sometimes also with e, as in the ending -ceous), but it is sounded without being written in a large class of words as the first element of what is called “long u” (that is, yoo: see U), as in use, union: and then, even when the oo (ö) part of the combination is reduced by slighting even to the neutral-vowel sound (u or u or ė), the y remains: hence, fig'yėr, not fig'ēr, for fig'ū r (fig'yör). In all these varieties of designation, the semi-vowel y-sound is a much rarer element than the w-sound in English utterance, making but $⅔$ of one per cent. of the latter, while the w is 2⅓ per cent. The character y in the archaic forms or abbreviations ye, yat, y, y, etc., is neither the Greek y nor the Anglo-Saxon y (ʒ), but a form of the Anglo-Saxon and Middle English p, now written th, and is to be pronounced, of course, as th.
    • y As a symbol:
    • y In chem., the symbol of yttrium.
    • y In ornithology, in myological formulas, the symbol of the accessory semitendinosus.
    • y In mathematics:
    • y [lowercase] In algebra, the second of the variables or unknown quantities.
    • y [lowercase] In analytical geometry, the symbol of the ordinate or other rectilinear point-coördinate.
    • y In mechanics, the component of a force in the direction of the axis of y.
    • y As a medieval Roman numeral, the symbol for 150, and with a line drawn above it (Y), 150,000.
    • y [lowercase] An abbreviation of year.
    • n y Something resembling the letter Y in shape. Specificallymdash; A forked clamp for holding drills or other tools.
    • n y An old mode of writing the pronoun I.
    • n y See i-. For Middle English words with this prefix, see i-, or the form without the prefix.
    • n y A very common suffix used to form adjectives from nouns, and sometimes from verbs, such adjectives denoting ‘having,’ ‘covered with,’ ‘full of,’ etc., the thing expressed by the noun, as in stony, rocky, icy, watery, rainy, dewy, meaty, juicy, mealy, salty, peppery, powdery, flowery, spotty, speckly, etc. It may be used with almost any noun, but is found chiefly with monosyllablcs, while examples of its use with trisyllables are rare.
    • n y A diminutive suffix, appearing chiefly in childish names of animals, etc., as kitty, doggy, piggy, birdy, froggy, mousy, and similar names, or familiar forms of personal names, as Katy or Kitty (diminutive of Kate), Jenny, Hetty, Fanny, Willy, Johnny, Tommy, etc., such names being often spelled with -ie, as Willie, Davie, etc., a spelling common in Scotch use, and also in general use in names of girls, as Katie, Jennie, Hettie, Carrie, Lizzie, Nellie, Annie, etc. Such names coincide in terminal form with some feminine names not actually diminutive, as Mary, Lucy, Lily, formerly and sometimes still written Marie, Lucie, Lillie, etc. The diminutive termination is not used, except as above, in English literary speech, but it is common in Scotch, as in beastie, mannie, lassie, sometimes with a second diminutive suffix, as in lassiekie, etc.
    • n y A termination of nouns from the Latin or Greek, or of modern formation on the Latin or Greek model. Such nouns are or were originally abstract, but many are now concrete. Examples are family, innocency, homily, theory, geography, philosophy, philology, etc.; the list is innumerable. Besides words from the Latin and Greek, many other words have the termination -y, either after the analogy of the Latin and Greek termination, or from some other source. As the termination in such cases usually has no significance, and is therefore not used as formative within the meaning assigned to that word, such words, which are very numerous and intractable to classification, are here ignored.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: There are at least two words in the English language that use all of the vowels, in the correct order, and end in the letter Y: abstemiously & facetiously.
    • Y the twenty-fifth letter of our alphabet.—Y=150;
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Quotations

  • Robert H. Schuller
    Robert%20H.%20Schuller
    “Courage is spelled I-N-T-E-G-R-I-T-Y.”
  • Gore Vidal
    Gore%20Vidal
    “Democracy is supposed to give you the feeling of choice, like Painkiller X and Painkiller Y. But they're both just aspirin.”
  • Thomas Kempis
    Thomas%20Kempis
    “Thou art my glory and the exultation of y heart: thou art my hope and refuge in the day of my trouble.”
  • W. A. Clarke
    W. A. Clarke
    “Before marriage a man yearns for a woman. Afterward the y is silent.”
  • Woody Allen
    Woody%20Allen
    “I was thrown out of N.Y.U. my freshman year for cheating on my metaphysics final. You know, I looked within the soul of the boy sitting next to me.”
  • R A Dickson
    R A Dickson
    “X is work. Y is play. Z is keep your mouth shut.”

Usage

In literature:

It was founded by Mrs. Joseph K. Brick of Brooklyn, N. Y., in memory of her deceased husband, Joseph K. Brick.
"The American Missionary - Volume 52, No. 3, September, 1898" by Various
What y' goan to do after you spent the money?
"A Spoil of Office" by Hamlin Garland
Lilly b'y no fred dem witch; 'e no bodder lilly b'y.
"Nights With Uncle Remus" by Joel Chandler Harris
There's a list of rooming-houses over at the Y. M. Come on, I'll show you the way.
"The Trail of the Hawk" by Sinclair Lewis
Miss Jennie L. Blowers, Westfield, N. Y.
"The American Missionary--Volume 49, No. 02, February, 1895" by Various
A. F. BEARD, D.D., Brooklyn, N. Y. Rev.
"The American Missionary -- Volume 50, No. 05, May, 1896" by Various
Y' see this thing's li'ble to fizzle some.
"The Watchers of the Plains" by Ridgewell Cullum
Here, I s'y; I went down, didn't I?
"Fix Bay'nets" by George Manville Fenn
X, Y, and Z represent 3 binding-posts like App.
"How Two Boys Made Their Own Electrical Apparatus" by Thomas M. (Thomas Matthew) St. John
In the "Wealthy Citizens of New York," edited in 1845 by Moses Y.
"As I Remember" by Marian Gouverneur
Everybody seemed wide awake and happy; and as we drove away, the Y. M. C. A. were about to hold their services.
"The American Missionary -- Volume 54, No. 2, April, 1900" by Various
Brooklyn, Plymouth, 50; Clinton Ave., Y. W. G., 49; Ch.
"The American Missionary -- Volume 54, No. 3, July, 1900" by Various
On'y, you've picked up Dad's hand to gamble with.
"Rimrock Trail" by J. Allan Dunn
Step around, you Miguels and Serapios and Cristobals, whatever y'u claim your names are.
"Red Men and White" by Owen Wister
There were a few young men who joined the Y to avoid more serious military service.
"Chit-Chat; Nirvana; The Searchlight" by Mathew Joseph Holt
He was ve'y complimenta'y, in fact, the Doctah.
"Dr. Sevier" by George W. Cable
On'y don't in any case come into town.
"John March, Southerner" by George W. Cable
Y' have questioned me; y' have baited Carter; y' have frighted the jack-priest with hints.
"The Works of Robert Louis Stevenson - Swanston Edition Vol. 8 (of 25)" by Robert Louis Stevenson
Why d' y' strain y'rself doin' somethin' y' ain't used t'?
"Si Klegg, Book 3 (of 6) Si And Shorty Meet Mr. Rosenbaum, The Spy, Who Relates His Adventures" by John McElroy
This is my wounded pardner here, and yo'uns can't have neither me nor him till yo'uns down me, which y' can't do.
"Si Klegg, Book 6 (of 6) Si And Shorty, With Their Boy Recruits, Enter On The Atlanta Campaign" by John McElroy
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In poetry:

Mientras el corazon y la cabeza
Batallando prosigan;
Mientras haya esperanzas y recuerdos,
iHabra poesia!
"Rimas IV" by Gustavo Adolfo Becquer
"Yn mey cart y haffe a bowe,
Forsoyt," he seyde, "and that a godde;
Yn mey cart ys the bow
That I had of Robyn Hode."
"Robin Hood And The Potter" by Andrew Lang
"Y well queyt the," kod the screffe,
And swer be god of meythe;
Schetyng thay left, and hom they went,
Her scoper was redey deythe.
"Robin Hood And The Potter" by Andrew Lang
"Knowest thow Robyn Hode?" seyde the screffe,
"Potter, y prey the tell thou me;"
"A hundred torne y haffe schot with hem,
Under hes tortyll tree."
"Robin Hood And The Potter" by Andrew Lang
Leetle Lac Grenier, she 's all alone,
Up on de mountain high
But she never feel lonesome, 'cos for w'y?
So soon as de winter was gone away
De bird come again an' sing to her ev'ry day.
"Leetle Lac Grenier" by William Henry Drummond
God bless ye, Denman Thomps'n, for the good y' do our hearts,
With this music an' these memories o' youth--
God bless ye for the faculty that tops all human arts,
The good ol' Yankee faculty of Truth!
""The Old Homestead"" by Eugene Field

In news:

Michael and Karen McAndrew of Jamestown, N.Y.
Not the campus in Annandale-on-Hudson, N.Y.
Environmental group sues N.Y. Monday, November 19, 2012 Login Register.
Environmental group sues N.Y. Tuesday, November 20, 2012 Login Register.
During the sentencing hearing in Columbia County Court, Shafiqul Islam, 22, of Hudson, N.Y.
Dennis Sick, who owns a restaurant in Baldwinsville, N.Y.
Commentator Mira Bartok is having a hard time escaping the din of life, at the Y and elsewhere.
Photo by John Herr Gerry Niewood performs on July 14, 2007, at Strathallan Grill in Rochester, N.Y.
The North Shore School District in Glen Head, N.Y.
It's here: Beak & Skiff Vodka now on the shelf in LaFayette, N.Y. Michelle Gabel / The Post-Standard Vodka made from apples at Beak & Skiff Apple Farms in LaFayette is now available for purchase.
Elio Villafranca, Arturo Stable w/Igor Arias 1529 Dos y Mas Motema.
Mark Scherzer and Peter Davies raised 95 heritage turkeys this year on their 40-acre farm in Germantown, N.Y.
Fri, Mar 9 N Y. Thu, Feb 16 at N.Y. Thu, Dec 8 at N.Y.
UTICA, N.Y.–Big and green, that's what a local theater asked for when it commissioned Meyda Tiffany to make a new chandelier for its domed grand foyer.
The Science-y Search for Healthy Sugar Water.
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In science:

I ) L(y |ΓI ) , where u(y |Γ) = D(y ) coth[D(y )(Γ + C (y ))] and Y (y |Γ) = D(y )/ sinh[D(y )(Γ + C (y ))].
Dynamics and transport in random quantum systems governed by strong-randomness fixed points
Let now f (x, y ) = P (x, y )/Q(x, y ) and µyy (x, y ) = X (x, y )/ Y (x, y ), where P , Q, X and Y are polynomials in y .
The rational generalized integrating factors for first-order ODEs
That is, (x, y) and (x′ , y ′ ) are even– connected if either |x − x′ | = |y − y ′ | = 1 or (|x − x′ |, |y − y ′ |) = (0, 2) or (|x − x′ |, |y − y ′ |) = (2, 0).
The speed of biased random walk on percolation clusters
R-bilinear, (ii) [x, y ] = −(−1)deg xdeg y [y , x] (deg u = i if u ∈ L¯i ), (iii) [x, [y , z ]] + (−1)deg x(deg y+deg z ) [y , [z , x]] + (−1)deg z (deg x+deg y) [z , [x, y ]] = 0.
Automorphisms and twisted loop algebras of finite dimensional simple Lie superalgebras
Remark 3.13] If K’s range is µ-a.s. contained in a (deterministic) finite dimensional subspace of Y , (2.4) extends to al l F ∈ Dp,1(Y ∗ ). ii) If α ∈ dompδ and y ∈ Y , it fol lows directly from the definitions that α ⊗ y ∈ domp,Y δ and that δ(α ⊗ y) = (δα)y .
The Clark-Ocone formula for vector valued random variables in abstract Wiener space
Then the following quasi-identities are satisfied in L: (y = z ) → (y = y ), (y = z ) → (y = z ), (y = z ) → (y = y ∧ z ), (y = z ) → (y = y ∨ z ).
M-hyperquasivarieties
K (Y , ¯Y ) ∂Y i∂ ¯Y i ≡ Kii , 4With such a definition, both χi and F i transform as tangent vectors under arbitrary holomorphic reparametrizations, Y i → f i (Y ), of the K¨ahler manifold with K¨ahler potential K (Y , ¯Y ).
On the component structure of N = 1 supersymmetric nonlinear electrodynamics
For general ([g ], y ) ∈ G/K × Y ′ , notice that ϕ ◦ lg = σg ◦ ϕ, where lg ([h], y ) = ([gh], y ), so dϕ([g],y) ◦ (dlg )([e],y) = (dσg )([e],y) ◦ dϕ([e],y) , and dϕ([e],y) is isomorphic implies dϕ([g],y) is isomorphic.
A Generalization of Random Matrix Ensemble I: General Theory
We also suppose that f is bounded and that f fills the following property of monotonicity w.r.t. y : there exists µ > 0 such that ∀(y , z ), (y ′ , z ) ∈ R+ × R2 , (y − y ′ )(f (y , z ) − f (y ′ , z )) 6 −µ(y − y ′ )2 .
Stability of solutions of BSDEs with random terminal time
K -Lipschitz in y and z , (ii) f is monotone in y in the following way : there exists µ > 0 such that ∀(t, y , z ), (t, y ′ , z ) ∈ R+ × R2 , (y − y ′ )(f (t, y , z ) − f (t, y ′ , z )) 6 −µ(y − y ′ )2 . (iii) f is bounded.
Stability of solutions of BSDEs with random terminal time
Hence (y ′ , u) ∈ ¯S implies u ∈ acl(y ) for any y with rv(y ) = y ′ , so (fixing such a y ) {u : (y ′ , u) ∈ ¯S} is finite for any given y ′ .
Integration in valued fields
In this case the lemma is proved: φ ◦ h(x, y ′ ) = φ(x, hY (y ′ )) = τ (δ(hY (y ′ )), ρ(x, y )) = τ (τY (ρY ′ (y ′ )), ρ(x, y )).
Integration in valued fields
Let RV+ [∗] be the category of pairs (Y , f ), where Y is a +-definable subset of X for some (X, f ) ∈ Ob RV[∗] (Definition 3.66). A morphism (Y , f ) → (Y ′ , f ′ ) is a definable bijection h : Y → Y ′ such that f ′ (h(y )) ∈ acl(f (y )) for y ∈ Y .
Integration in valued fields
We consider the category RDef exp Z whose ob jects are triples (Y → Z, ξ , g ) with Y in RDef Z and ξ : Y → h[0, 1, 0] and g : Y → h[1, 0, 0] morphisms in Def k . A morphism (Y ′ → Z, ξ ′ , g ′) → (Y → Z, ξ , g ) in RDef exp Z is a morphism h : Y ′ → Y in Def Z such that ξ ′ = ξ ◦ h and g ′ = g ◦ h.
Constructible exponential functions, motivic Fourier transform and transfer principle
Now y ′ = θ(y ′ ) and y ′′ = θ(y ′′ ) for η-pseudo-orbits y ′ , y ′′ made by concatenating b’s and c’s; and therefore by our assumptions, every pair (ai , aj ) occurs in the pair y ′ , y ′′ .
Genericity in Topological Dynamics
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