• Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Voluntarism a political philosophy opposed to dependence on governmental action or support for social services that might be performed by private groups.
    • Voluntarism (Philosophy) Any theory which conceives will to be the dominant factor in experience or in the constitution of the world; -- contrasted with intellectualism. Schopenhauer and Fichte are typical exponents of the two types of metaphysical voluntarism, Schopenhauer teaching that the evolution of the universe is the activity of a blind and irrational will, Fichte holding that the intelligent activity of the ego is the fundamental fact of reality.
    • Voluntarism the principle or practice of depending on volunteers to support institutions or perform some desired action.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n voluntarism The metaphysical opinion that all existence and all actual happening is of the nature of an individual effort (against a resistance) which has on each occasion a peculiar conscious quality and is also discriminative or, at least rudimentally, purposive, and so cognitive. In so far as this opinion makes cognition essentially purposive, it agrees, in effect, with pragmatism from which, however, it differs in being a metaphysical hypothesis founded on arguments drawn from psychology, instead of being a maxim of logic deduced from an analysis of the nature of signs.
    • n voluntarism A type of psychological theory, which regards the will as fundamental, and accordingly emphasizes the volitional rather than the intellectual aspect of our nature: ordinarily opposed to intellectualism.
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In literature:

On the contrary: voluntarism, we say, is right in every respect except in believing itself to be psychology.
"Harvard Psychological Studies, Volume 1" by Various
The ever visible organist voluntarized ravishingly and in really fine style.
"A Day's Tour" by Percy Fitzgerald
Intellectualism and Voluntarism 210 Sect.
"The Approach to Philosophy" by Ralph Barton Perry
To the idol of voluntarism a veritable holocaust of victims has been offered up.
"Freedom In Service" by Fossey John Cobb Hearnshaw
Anger is an excess of aversion, that is of voluntarity not yet employed.
"Zoonomia, Vol. II" by Erasmus Darwin
Carried into practice, Voluntarism would be as like Anarchism as two peas.
"Anarchism" by E. V. Zenker
Other provisions governing the establishment of agroindustrial complexes, however, conflicted with the principle of voluntarism.
"Area Handbook for Bulgaria" by Eugene K. Keefe, Violeta D. Baluyut, William Giloane, Anne K. Long, James M. Moore, and Neda A. Walpole
Voluntarism supplements and gives life to universal labor service.
"Dictatorship vs. Democracy" by Leon Trotsky

In news:

Nell Nolan's Social Scene: trio of social salutes make voluntarism viable.
In light of the battle in Brookline to end the oppressive, once a week, voluntar.