Venus

Definitions

  • Venus Disrobing for the Bath
    Venus Disrobing for the Bath
  • WordNet 3.6
    • n Venus type genus of the family Veneridae: genus of edible clams with thick oval shells
    • n Venus the second nearest planet to the sun; it is peculiar in that its rotation is slow and retrograde (in the opposite sense of the Earth and all other planets except Uranus); it is visible from Earth as an early `morning star' or an `evening star' "before it was known that they were the same object the evening star was called Venus and the morning star was called Lucifer"
    • n Venus goddess of love; counterpart of Greek Aphrodite
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Additional illustrations & photos:

The Cat and Venus The Cat and Venus
DIFFERENT PHASES OF VENUS DIFFERENT PHASES OF VENUS
ORBITS OF MARS, THE EARTH, VENUS, AND MERCURY ORBITS OF MARS, THE EARTH, VENUS, AND MERCURY

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The first spacecraft to visit the planet Venus was Mariner 2 in 1962.
    • Venus (Zoöl) Any one of numerous species of marine bivalve shells of the genus Venus or family Veneridæ. Many of these shells are large, and ornamented with beautiful frills; others are smooth, glossy, and handsomely colored. Some of the larger species, as the round clam, or quahog, are valued for food.
    • Venus (Anat) One of the planets, the second in order from the sun, its orbit lying between that of Mercury and that of the Earth, at a mean distance from the sun of about 67,000,000 miles. Its diameter is 7,700 miles, and its sidereal period 224.7 days. As the morning star, it was called by the ancients Lucifer; as the evening star, Hesperus.
    • Venus (Class. Myth) The goddess of beauty and love, that is, beauty or love deified.
    • Venus (Alchem) The metal copper; -- probably so designated from the ancient use of the metal in making mirrors, a mirror being still the astronomical symbol of the planet Venus.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: At one time, Venus de Milo had arms.
    • n Venus In Roman mythology, the goddess of beauty and love, more especially sensual love. Venus was of little importance as a Roman goddess until, at a comparatively late period, she was identified with the Greek Aphrodite. She is represented as the highest ideal of female beauty, and was naturally a favorite subject with poets and artists, some of her statues being among the noblest remains of classical sculpture. The following are some of the more important of the innumerable surviving antique statues of this goddess. The Venus of Arles, a fine Greek statue found in 1651 in the ancient theater at Aries, and now in the Louvre Museum. The figure is undraped to below the waist. The hands and forearms are modern restorations. The statue probably-belonged to the Victrix type (for this and other types, see the phrases). The Venus of Capua, a very noteworthy antique in the Museum of Naples, discovered in the amphitheater at Capua. The figure is undraped to the hips, and is of the Victrix type. It bears a strong resemblance to the Venus of Melos, but is distinctly inferior to that masterpiece. The head is encircled by a stephane. The Venus of Medici, one of the best-known works of ancient sculpture, treasured in the Uffizi Gallery at Florence. The figure is of Parian marble, wholly undraped, the face turned to one side, one of the arms extended with the hand held before the body, and the other arm bent before the breast. It is shown by the dolphin on the base to belong to the type of the Venus Anadyomene. While the pose is not identical with that of the Venus of Cnidus, it is generally held to be a free rendering of that conception. The figure is somewhat under natural size, being about 4 feet 8 inches in height, but is commonly taken as the exemplar of perfect proportions in a woman. It was found in the Villa of Hadrian, at Tivoli, about 1680. The Venus of Melos (by corruption from the native Greek pronunciation, Venus of Milo), one of the most splendid surviving works of ancient art, discovered by a farmer in the island of Melos in 1820, and now the chief treasure of the Louvre Museum. The statue dates from about the middle of the fourth century b. c. It is undraped to the hips; the arms are broken off; the figure and face are at once graceful and beautiful, and highly imposing. The typeis that of the Victrix. The Venus of the Capitol, in the Capitoline Museum at Rome, undraped, and in attitude and motive very similar to the Venus of Medici, though the Capitoline statue displays a more personal element, and comes closer to the living model. Of the modern statues representing Venus, there may be mentioned the Venus Borghese, a celebrated statue by Canova, in the Villa Borghese at Rome. The statue represents the Princess Paulino (Bonaparte) Borghese in the character of Venus Genetrix. The figure is shown reclining, extending the apple in one hand, the head being a close portrait. See Aphrodite.
    • n Venus The most brilliant of the planets, being frequently visible to the naked eye by daylight. It is the second from the sun and next within the earth's orbit, performing its sidereal revolution in 224.7008 days; its distance from the sun is 0.723332 that of the earth. The synodical revolution is made in 584 days. Its orbit is the most nearly circular of those of the major planets, the greatest equation of the center being only 47 3″. The inclination of the orbit to the ecliptic is 3 23'.5; and the earth passes through the ascending node on December 7th. The mass of Venus (which is not very closely ascertained) is about that of the sun, or that of the earth. Its diameter is a little smaller than that of our planet, which subtends an angle of 2 x 8″.827 at the sun's center, while Venus at the same distance has a semidiameter of 8″.68 by the mean of the best night measures, or 8″.40 according to the observations at its transit over the snn. Taking the mean of these (which are alf ected in opposite ways by irradiation), or 8″.54, we find the diameter of Venus about that of the earth. Its volume is about , its density about , and gravity at its surface about the same quantities for the earth. It receives 1.9 as much light and heat from the sun as we, and the tidal action of the latter is about 5.3 times as great as upon the earth. The period of rotation of Venus is set down in many books as 23 hours and 50 minutes; but recent observations have led some astronomers to the confident conclusion that the true period falls short but a little of 225 days, so that day and night last for many years. The old figure was deduced chiefly from the observation that a spot appeared nearly in the same place night after night, so that it seemed as if Venus had made one complete revolution; whereas it now appears that there is in one day no sensible motion. The vast tidal action may account for the near approach of the periods of rotation and revolution. Venus has an atmosphere nearly twice as dense as our own, and we may safely infer that all its water is in the form of dry steam; for the dense atmosphere must cause a greater proportion of the heat to be retained. Probably nearly all the carbon is in the form of carbonic anhydrid or carbonates, leaving little or no free oxygen. Geological erosion can hardly be great. The mountains of Venus are shown to be high by the form of the terminator. Still, Venus reflects a great amount of light (its albedo being 0.9 that of Jupiter, which is perhaps selfluminous), and much of this appears to come from general specular reflection, as from polished level surfaces, possibly melted metals. The night side of Venus, which must be intensely cold, shows a faint coppery-red light, which is somewhat fitful in its appearances, and is probably of the nature of an intense aurora. No satellite of Venus has ever been seen. Numerous observations of one were reported in the eighteenth century; but all these have been fairly shown to be fixed stars, except one, which was probably an asteroid. The symbol for Venus is ♀ , supposed to represent the goddess's mirror.
    • n Venus Sexual intercourse; venery.
    • n Venus In old chemistry, copper.
    • n Venus In heraldry, green: the name given to that color when blazoning is done by means of the planets. See blazon, n., 2.
    • n Venus In conchology: The typical genus of bivalve shells of the family Veneridæ: so called by Linnæus with allusion to the shape of the lunule of the closed valves. See cuts under Veneridæ, quahog, and dimyarian.
    • n Venus [lowercase] A shell of the genus Venus; any venerid.
    • n Venus Venus's-comb; a murex.
    • n Venus Venus's-slipper. A heteropod, the glass-nautilus. See cut under Carinaria. A pteropod of the family Cymbulidæ. See cut under Cymbulum.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Planet Venus is the only planet to spin counter-clockwise.
    • n Venus vē′nus (Roman myth.) the goddess of love, originally of spring, patron of flower-gardens, but identified with the Greek Aphrodite: beauty and love deified: sexual commerce, venery: the most brilliant of the planets, second in order from the sun
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Quotations

  • Jean Racine
    Jean Racine
    “It's no longer a warmth hidden in my veins: it's Venus entire and whole fastening on her prey.”
  • Jim Critchfield
    Jim Critchfield
    “Venus is now astrologically square with Pluto. That means there isn't a hip planet left.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. Venus, -eris, the goddess of love, the planet Venus
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L., orig. personified from venus, desire; akin to venerāri, to worship.

Usage

In literature:

Venus is the Babylonian Ishtar.
"The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria" by Morris Jastrow
In 1881, Jupiter, Saturn, and Venus were grouped together in Pisces.
"A Field Book of the Stars" by William Tyler Olcott
Venus leaves Rome and accompanies Lucretia.
"Lucretia Borgia" by Ferdinand Gregorovius
They certainly are on Venus, and they once were on Mars.
"Spacehounds of IPC" by Edward Elmer Smith
To this girl from Venus it came as naturally as she breathed.
"Wandl the Invader" by Raymond King Cummings
In a moment they were blasting through the misty atmosphere of Venus into the depths of space.
"On the Trail of the Space Pirates" by Carey Rockwell
Then shall you most resemble Venus' nun, When Venus' sweet rites are performed and done.
"The Works of Christopher Marlowe, Vol. 3 (of 3)" by Christopher Marlowe
There 's a swarm of Cupids, my little Venus, that has done the business much better.
"The Beaux-Stratagem" by George Farquhar
Jupiter and Juno to begin with; Venus and Vulcan.
"Gryll Grange" by Thomas Love Peacock
Venus was his at that moment; all of Venus.
"Tarrano the Conqueror" by Raymond King Cummings
There have been poets whose service of Venus Verticordia was whole-hearted.
"Milton" by Sir Walter Alexander Raleigh
On it, a magnificent temple was erected, in honor of Venus.
"The Metamorphoses of Ovid" by Publius Ovidius Naso
You feel that he would have put arms on the Venus de Milo!
"Riviera Towns" by Herbert Adams Gibbons
L. SOUTH KENSINGTON, Venus and Mars (lent).
"The Venetian Painters of the Renaissance" by Bernhard Berenson
By the girdle of Venus!
"Nicanor - Teller of Tales" by C. Bryson Taylor
Another of the Venus of Titian, at the Tribuna in Florence.
"A Tour in Ireland 1776-1779" by Arthur Young
It must appear to us as Venus does to the Earth when she is making a transit across the face of the sun.
"Pharaoh's Broker" by Ellsworth Douglass
The same difficulty is seen in the case of Venus.
"The World's Greatest Books - Volume 15 - Science" by Various
The Venus of Alcamenes stood in a temple of that goddess in a garden beyond the eastern wall of Athens.
"A History of Art for Beginners and Students" by Clara Erskine Clement
Hence the point of observation was called Point Venus.
"Celebrated Travels and Travellers" by Jules Verne
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In poetry:

I do not know how Venus looked
Nor who the dame might be;
I did obey the ancient book,
Comparing her with thee.
"Strephon's Song" by Ethel Clifford
It is Phyllis fair and bright,
She that is the shepherds' joy;
She that Venus did despite,
And did blind her little boy.
"A Pastoral" by Nicholas Breton
Shalt call me " Sweet," shalt call me " Dear,'
But not a "crowned Venus."
So drown thy poesy in love
Or all must end between us.
"Chloe's Song" by Ethel Clifford
The Muses Cupid bind with flowers,
And Beauty's arms enfold him;
Vainly a ransom Venus brings—
He loves the bonds that hold him.
"From Anacreon: Ode XXIX" by Peter John Allan
Venus! present a lover near,
And gently whisper in her ear
His woes, who, lonely and forlorn,
Counts the slow clock from night till morn.
"Ode to Sleep" by John Logan
Yes; Fulvia is like Venus fair,
Has all her bloom, and shape, and air;
But still, to perfect every grace,
She wants—the smile upon her face.
"The Attribute of Venus" by William Shenstone

In news:

WinStar and Airdrie Partner to Buy Mons Venus.
Caracortado (o/o Mons Venus) winning the Daytona Stakes.
Venus Don't Leave Home Without It.
The Morning Star Makes an Afternoon Appearance: See Venus During the Day on Monday.
Photo of a lunar occulation of Venus from 2007.
Venus and Serena spent time in South Africa offering lessons to children and disabled athletes.
Men are from Mars & women are from Venus - it applies to economists as well.
The Venus transit from Ellicott City, Md.
In many parts of the United States, clouds interfered with the historic transit of Venus.
Network people are from Venus.
This computer simulation shows the changing distances between Earth and Venus over many years.
Venus due to change shape and size.
(FORTUNE Magazine) – If women are from Venus and men are from Mars, then Rebecca Mark is from another planet altogether.
Kim Clijsters will play a ceremonial farewell match on Dec 12 against Venus Williams.
It zoomed to within 21,564 miles of Venus, but the trip wasn't without a few problems.
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In science:

Here, the orbits of 1104 test particles around Venus are integrated for 75 million years.
Asteroids in the Inner Solar System I - Existence
The initial inclinations of the test particles (with respect to the plane of Venus’ orbit) are spaced every 2◦ and the initial longitudes (again with respect to Venus) are spaced every 15◦ .
Asteroids in the Inner Solar System I - Existence
The extrapolations presented in Table 5 suggest that there will be some hundreds of surviving test particles for Venus and the Earth even if the simulations are continued for the age of the Solar System (∼ 5 Gyrs).
Asteroids in the Inner Solar System I - Existence
For both Venus and the Earth, this suggests that several hundred test particles remain, even if the simulations are run for the age of the Solar System.
Asteroids in the Inner Solar System I - Existence
Extrapolation suggests that some inclined test particles remain for Venus, the Earth and Mars even after 5 Gyr.
Asteroids in the Inner Solar System I - Existence
The results of our surveys for Venus and the Earth are somewhat similar.
Asteroids in the Inner Solar System I - Existence
The semima jor axes of the stable test particles a, as compared to < 0.72% for Venus and the parent planet ap , satisfy ∆a/ap ∼ < 1.2% for the Earth.
Asteroids in the Inner Solar System I - Existence
These suggest that there may be some hundreds of asteroids in the coorbital regions of Venus and the Earth.
Asteroids in the Inner Solar System I - Existence
In order to minimize the orbit inclination, the Venus’ flyby would need to occur near the time of Venus nodal crossing (i.e., around 7/6/2011).
New Concept for Testing General Relativity: The Laser Astrometric Test of Relativity (LATOR) Mission
An approach with a type IV tra jectory and a single Venus flyby requires a powered Venus flyby with about 500 to 900 m/s.
New Concept for Testing General Relativity: The Laser Astrometric Test of Relativity (LATOR) Mission
Venus at the time of the flyby determines the orbit inclination Gerber et al. (2003).
Science, Technology and Mission Design for the Laser Astrometric Test Of Relativity
In order to minimize the orbit inclination, the Venus’ flyby would need to occur near the time of Venus nodal crossing.
Science, Technology and Mission Design for the Laser Astrometric Test Of Relativity
An approach with a type IV tra jectory and a single Venus flyby requires a powered Venus flyby with about 500 to 900 m/s.
Science, Technology and Mission Design for the Laser Astrometric Test Of Relativity
This does not happen in string models like, dual parton model, quark gluon string model and Venus where there is color exchange and the strings are stretched between partons of the projectile and the target.
Deconfinement
Venus could have Tro jans but doesn’t (Scholl et al. 2005).
Astrophysics in 2006
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