Unit of heat

Definitions

• Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
• Unit of heat (Physics) a determinate quantity of heat adopted as a unit of measure; a thermal unit (see under Thermal). Water is the substance generally employed, the unit being one gram or one pound, and the temperature interval one degree of the Centigrade or Fahrenheit scale. When referred to the gram, it is called the gram degree. The British unit of heat, or thermal unit, used by engineers in England and in the United States, is the quantity of heat necessary to raise one pound of pure water at and near its temperature of greatest density (39.1° Fahr.) through one degree of the Fahrenheit scale.
• Unit of heat the quantity of heat required to raise, by one degree, the temperature of a unit mass of water, initially at a certain standard temperature. The temperature usually employed is that of 0° Centigrade, or 32° Fahrenheit.
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Usage

In literature:

It is necessary to have a unit of heat just as we have a unit of length, or a unit of mass, or a unit of time.
"General Science" by Bertha M. Clark
We take the unit quantity of heat to be that which is required to heat 1 kilogram of water 1 deg.
"The Birth-Time of the World and Other Scientific Essays" by J. (John) Joly
Taking as the unit of heat the amount which would be necessary to raise 1 lb.
"Scientific American Supplement, No. 508, September 26, 1885" by Various
Dane put the mug back on the heating unit and sat down at the other end of the table.
"Plague Ship" by Andre Norton
Uniting of two substances by a third, with heat.
"Practical Mechanics for Boys" by J. S. Zerbe
Up to the present writing, no great progress has been made in the United States with the roasting of coffee by electric heat.
"All About Coffee" by William H. Ukers
F. The seasonal sum of heat for ripening is probably 1600 to 2400 units.
"Manual of American Grape-Growing" by U. P. Hedrick
As he raised the glowing flap of his tent, Larkin saw Smith lounging in a chair before the electric heat unit.
"The Terrible Answer" by Arthur G. Hill
Few public characters in the United States have been the subject of more heated controversy.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 4" by Various
But the specific heat of water is often stated in terms of other units.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 1" by Various
All these are measurable into units of heat.
"The Eruption of Vesuvius in 1872" by Luigi Palmieri
Similarly, the heat which accompanies the dissolution of one electrochemical unit of copper is 3.00 calories.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 9, Slice 2" by Various
The difficult task and the heat of the day also united in increasing the irritation of the boys.
"The Go Ahead Boys and the Mysterious Old House" by Ross Kay
Oxygen unites with the carbon of the food in the blood of animals; carbonic acid is formed and heat evolved.
"Martyria" by Augustus C. Hamlin
Mars receives less than half the amount of sun-heat per unit of surface that we do.
"Man's Place in the Universe" by Alfred R. Wallace
Many attempts have been made to discover the relation between the units of heat energy and the units of mechanical energy.
"Physics" by Willis Eugene Tower
Thus we had two great parties in the United States, working themselves up to white heat over the politics of England and France.
"The Oxford Book of American Essays" by Various
Carbon (being very solid) requires a great degree of heat to make it unite with the oxygen of the air.
"A Guide to the Scientific Knowledge of Things Familiar" by Ebenezer Cobham Brewer
Steam in condensing yields an enormously greater number of heat units per lb.
"Animal Proteins" by Hugh Garner Bennett
Here ore, coal and lime meet and mingle as naturally as the heat of the sun and the life of the seed unite in the springtime.
"Historic Towns of the Western States" by Various
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In news:

SWAT-H HEAT Armor offers several different variations of our SWAT truck units.
0 Jennifer Simpson of the United States competes in a women's 1,500-meter heat Monday.
Since California issued regulations in 2005 to keep farmworkers from dying of extreme heat, preventable farmworker deaths have continued, according to the United Farm Worker s.
TUCSON (KGUN9-TV) - 9 On Your Side has learned that the Department of Public Safety does have heat alarms in place in its K-9 units.
Perhaps the biggest development was the acquisition of Goodman, the largest privately held air conditioning and heating equipment manufacturer in the United States.
Mike Houdak, a Walla Walla Community College instructor, takes a picture of a helicopter that was intended to switch out a heating and cooling unit Thursday at an assisted living facility on Dalles Military Road.
DUBUQUE, Iowa — Even with polls showing a dead heat, it's a safe bet the next president of the United States was in the northeastern corner of Iowa on Saturday afternoon.
Temperatures soared into triple digits across the western United States on Saturday as a continuing heat wave strained energy supplies and sent thousands to beaches, lakes and shopping malls in search of cooler climes.
According to a CNN poll, the race for president of the United States is a dead heat .
According to a CNN poll, the race for president of the United States is a dead heat.
Los Angeles Unified maintenance crews racked up more than \$400,000 in overtime repairing overloaded air-conditioning units during the heat wave that swamped the region during the opening days of school, LAUSD officials said.
Officials say the homeowner told them he saw sparks coming out of the heating unit just before the fire started.
The CPSC also issued a second recall of 30,000 packaged terminal air conditioner/ heat pump units, manufactured in the United States by Goodman Co LP of Houston, after two additional incidents of smoke or fire were reported.
Heating oil prices surged on the New York Mercantile Exchange yesterday as speculators bought heavily on concern that the United States and other big consumers were short of supplies heading into the winter.
News-Argus/Bobby Williams David Cooke, of Herring Heating and Air Conditioning Inc checks a newly installed unit.
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In science:

This involves the heat kernel evolution of the delta distribution (which is the matrix element of the unit operator in the Schr¨odinger (position) representation) with respect to a generalized Laplace operator, called the complexiﬁer, followed by a certain analytic continuation.
Semiclassical analysis of the Loop Quantum Gravity volume operator: I. Flux Coherent States
Now the unit operator in LQG can be written as a resolution of unity in terms of SNWF’s and although the heat kernel is a damping operator, since the SNWF are not countable (the LQG Hilbert space is not separable), the resulting expression is not normalizable.
Semiclassical analysis of the Loop Quantum Gravity volume operator: I. Flux Coherent States
Since the energy ﬂux into the corona is constant in time the heating per unit mass decreases in time, an effect which is stronger for long periods due to the lower number of shocks in the corona at a given time.
The role of torsional Alfven waves in coronal heating
Diffusion is mimicked by letting the concentration evolve according to the heat equation with diffusivity κ during a unit time interval in between iterations of the maps.
Measures of mixing quality in open flows with chaotic advection
Where S is entropy per unit mass, Σ is surface density of the disk, Qvis is the local viscous heat generation rate and Qrad is the radiative cooling rate Abramowicz et al.
Slim accretion disks around black holes
FIG. 2: (Color online) Thermal conductivity κ in reduced units, computed by molecular dynamics from the heat exchange of a single particle with stochastically thermalized neighbors, and binary collision frequency νb , as functions of ρm − ρc , compared to our theoretical calculations (6) and (8) (solid line).
Heat conduction and Fourier's law by consecutive local mixing and thermalization
Shown is the ratio between the temperature of the test particle and the temperature of the heat bath versus the angular frequency of the test particle (in arbitrary units), for different mass ratios m/M .
Thermalization in open classical systems with finite heat baths
Temperature dependence of the speciﬁc heat, cB , of a classical spin in the isotropic and unbiased cases. cB is measured in units of kB and the dimensionless temperatures are 1/ξ = kB T /mB and |1/σ | = kB T /|K |v , respectively.
On the Statics and Dynamics of Magneto-Anisotropic Nanoparticles
Temperature dependence of the speciﬁc heat, cB , in various longitudinal ﬁelds h = B /BK for easy-axis anisotropy. cB is measured in units of kB and the dimensionless temperature is 1/σ = kBT /K v .
On the Statics and Dynamics of Magneto-Anisotropic Nanoparticles
Pr the radial pressure, P⊥ the tangential pressure, qα the heat ﬂux, ǫ the energy density of the null ﬂuid describing dissipation in the free streaming approximation, η the shear viscosity coeﬃcient, V α the four velocity of the ﬂuid, χα a unit four vector along the radial direction and lα a radial null four vector.
Relativistic Fluids and the Physics of Gravitational Collapse
FIG. 2: (Color online) Temperature of the test particle in units of the temperature of the heat bath versus the number of trials, each one characterized by a different seed.
Equilibrium states of a test particle coupled to finite size heat baths
In all the simulations we have used 200 oscillators in each heat bath, with a mass ratio between the bath particle and the test particle m/M = 10−3 , and a switching time ∆T = 1 in units of time steps.
Equilibrium states of a test particle coupled to finite size heat baths
In the top plot the case of the test particle only interacting with a heat bath at temperature 7.5 (in arbitrary units) is reported (blue curve), together with the initial and ﬁnal temperature of the heat bath acting on it (black curves, continuous and dashed, respectively).
Equilibrium states of a test particle coupled to finite size heat baths
In the top plot the case of the test particle only interacting with a heat bath at temperature 5 (in arbitrary units) is reported (blue curve), together with the initial and ﬁnal temperature of the heat bath acting on it (black curves, continuous and dashed, respectively).
Equilibrium states of a test particle coupled to finite size heat baths
The two heat baths have the same temperature 10 (in arbitrary units) and different, non-overlapping, density of states (see top and center ﬁgures).
Equilibrium states of a test particle coupled to finite size heat baths
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