Underpinning

Definitions

  • Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Underpinning (Arch) That by which a building is underpinned; the material and construction used for support, introduced beneath a wall already constructed.
    • Underpinning The act of one who underpins; the act of supporting by stones, masonry, or the like.
    • Underpinning (Arch) The foundation, esp. of a frame house.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n underpinning The act of one who underpins; the act of supporting a superior part of a wall, etc., by introducing a support underneath it.
    • n underpinning A solid structure, as a new foundation or other support, temporary or permanent, introduced beneath a wall, a building, etc., previously constructed, as when the original foundation has proved insufficient, or has been impaired from any cause. Also called undersetting, and in Scotland goufing.
    • n underpinning The foundation-wall of a building, especially of a wooden one.
    • n underpinning A method of well-sinking in which a wall is laid in sections. A hole is dug as deep as it can be made with safety. A heavy curb of durable wood is laid, and the wall carried up from this. Excavations are then again carried on as deep as possible, and struts from the bottom are carried up to support the curb and its load, while excavations are made beneath it for another curb and its wall, which is built up to the under side of the first curb. A third section is laid in like manner, and thus on to the required depth.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Underpinning the act of underpinning or supporting by introducing a new structure as foundation, the act or practice of placing stones under the sills of a building: the stones so placed, an additional foundation wall: a method of well-sinking where a wall is laid in sections
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Usage

In literature:

For the moment he fancied that he would jerk bodily from off his underpinning.
"The Day's Work, Volume 1" by Rudyard Kipling
Your way of underpinning the track is pretty good, but I don't like that plan.
"The Girl From Keller's" by Harold Bindloss
A dish had just passed, with an underpinning of crust.
"Peter" by F. Hopkinson Smith
Ingolby was sharp enough to walk shy, until you came his way, and then he lost his underpinning.
"The World For Sale, Complete" by Gilbert Parker
We both liked to see the underpinnings of the magic.
"Down and Out in the Magic Kingdom" by Cory Doctorow
Before another Session we trust the proper spirit will move some underpinning there, for the greater good of the Commonwealth.
"Punchinello, Vol. 1, No. 9, May 28, 1870" by Various
Just before the Great War commenced, the costly operation of underpinning the cathedral was brought to a successful conclusion.
"Wanderings in Wessex" by Edric Holmes
The structure was but the inevitable underpinning for the desired display.
"The Life of Reason" by George Santayana
It was agreed that only by extensive underpinning could the work be accomplished.
"Winchester" by Sidney Heath
In connection with some recent underpinning work, 14-in.
"Pressure, Resistance, and Stability of Earth" by J. C. Meem
East side of Ninth Ave. looking North from 31st St., showing underpinning of Ninth Ave.
"Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, vol. LXVIII, Sept. 1910" by B.F. Cresson, Jr
The item next in importance was the underpinning of the walls with brick wherever it was needed.
"The Repair Of Casa Grande Ruin, Arizona, in 1891" by Cosmos Mindeleff
Nobody wants to see your house's underpinning, any more than he wants to see your own!
"The Amateur Garden" by George W. Cable
If he were taken from it, the underpinnings of that town would be knocked away, and it would fall flat.
"Lippincott's Magazine of Popular Literature and Science, Volume 20, September, 1877." by Various
This mode of underpinning is designed to prevent thieves from digging under the wall and into the house.
"Home Pork Making" by A. W. Fulton
There were laws upon laws, endeavours to underpin the framework of a decaying society.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 8" by Various
This requires sound underpinning, or the expense will be great.
"Remodeled Farmhouses" by Mary H. Northend
As to the length of his underpinning, that was apparent also.
"Yankee Ships and Yankee Sailors: Tales of 1812" by James Barnes
Saint was stoutly built, heavy in the shoulder, with good underpinning.
"The Soul of Susan Yellam" by Horace Annesley Vachell
There was a matter of underpinning for a start, but it costs money to underpin the west end of a cathedral.
"The Burglars' Club" by Henry A. Hering
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In news:

T he work requirements underpinning the nation's largest cash-assistance welfare program no longer are legally binding on state governments.
Research could hint at evolutionary underpinnings of female desire.
Lisa DeJong, The Plain Dealer A large crack in Riverbed Street above the Cuyahoga River has exposed the underpinnings of this manhole.
The 2013 XV Crosstrek, using Impreza underpinnings, is a nifty-looking buggy that has the persona to satisfy anybody's idea of a real SUV.
D'Antoni influence underpins stunning Lakers turnaround.
A plain tank is the only underpinning you need with a statement jacket.
NetApp's Software And Services Underpin $37 Fair Value.
Europe clinched a deal on Thursday to give the European Central Bank new powers to supervise euro zone banks from 2014, embarking on the first step in a new phase of closer integration to help underpin the euro.
Libor is the umbrella term for benchmark rates that underpin the terms of $350tn of contracts from mortgages to the cost of corporate lending.
With the music industry undergoing seismic shifts in its business model, its technological underpinnings, and the trajectory of artists' careers, it's comforting to know that at least a few things never change.
But there may be some unpleasant underpinnings beneath this noble goal.
The second-generation Auris, which was launched last month in Japan, rides on a new-generation MC platform that underpins the version of the Corolla sold in Europe and China.
OGDEN — The railroad may have been the economic underpinning of Ogden for years, but city officials say that role is now filled by outdoor recreation.
Footwear and Foot Orthoses provides students and clinicians with a guide to the information they require to underpin their clinical decision making.
BYUT CONGRESS--NATIONALIST WRAPPINGS, BUT POPULIST UNDERPINNINGS.
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In science:

More recently [4, 7, 8], it has been pointed out that it is possible to give a stochastic underpinning to space time and physical laws.
Space Time as a Random Heap
Failure, after sufficient effort, to construct such a pre-quantum underpinning for QM would support the view that QM is exact, in need perhaps only of a modified interpretation.
Probability in Orthodox Quantum Mechanics: Probability as a Postulate Versus Probability as an Emergent Phenomenon
The aim of the RTN proposal, called Euro3D, is to coordinate and underpin the many potentially complementary activities underway in Europe, concentrating on providing software while training young researchers to scientifically exploit the many 3D spectroscopy instruments which are coming available on large telescopes.
OPTICON: EC Optical Infrared Coordination Network for Astronomy
Notice that this bound tightens the semiclassical Bekenstein bound , which is of course expected because of its quantum kinematical underpinning.
Black hole entropy: classical and quantum aspects
We now turn to a brief, mostly qualitative, expos´e of aspects of Non-perturbative Quantum GR (also called Quantum Geometry) which is a candidate theory that provides such underpinning.
Black hole entropy: classical and quantum aspects
This type of observation is the underpinning of the expansion used in ChPT.
Chiral Perturbation Theory Beyond One Loop
These ideas underpin the use of General Relativity as a theory from which precise predictions are possible, since they show why quantum corrections to standard classical calculations are small.
Quantum Gravity and Precision Tests
However, it is clear that values of |∆S | > 0.10 are extremely difficult to reconcile with the SM CKM paradigm, underpinning the original predictions [11–13].
Null tests of the Standard Model at an International Super $B$ Factory
We have presented in this paper a simple way of mathematically underpinning the explanation of the effect of spontaneous symmetry breaking in quantum mechanical systems.
Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Quantum Mechanics
This result supports and underpins prior conclusions that most of the observed [CII] 158 µm line emission from Galactic and extragalactic sources arises from the warm, dense photodissociated surfaces of molecular clouds.
Detection of the 205 um [NII] Line from the Carina Nebula
Assuming that the global seismic vibration model is the correct mechanism underpinning the oscillations, one can start to deduce the properties of the magnetars’ interiors.
Neutron star oscillations and QPOs during magnetar flares
However, the reasons that underpin the validity of the balance condition are not yet clear.
Theory of Zipf's Law and of General Power Law Distributions with Gibrat's law of Proportional Growth
The strength of multiwavelength data is wellknown, in particular the combination of radio and optical survey programs, and this underpins the scientific motivation of the major proposed ASKAP surveys.
Anglo-Australian Observatory February 2009 newsletter
Underpinning the origin of neutrino mass remains a challenge despite the tremendous progress we have achieved.
Status of Neutrino Theory
The underpinning theoretical results are known as “ factorization theorems" .
Theory of asymptotic operation. A summary of basic principles
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