Sun

Definitions

  • NOT AFRAID OF THE SUN
    NOT AFRAID OF THE SUN
  • WordNet 3.6
    • v sun expose one's body to the sun
    • v sun expose to the rays of the sun or affect by exposure to the sun "insolated paper may turn yellow and crumble","These herbs suffer when sunned"
    • n sun the star that is the source of light and heat for the planets in the solar system "the sun contains 99.85% of the mass in the solar system","the Earth revolves around the Sun"
    • n Sun the star that is the source of light and heat for the planets in the solar system "the sun contains 99.85% of the mass in the solar system","the Earth revolves around the Sun"
    • n sun any star around which a planetary system revolves
    • n sun a person considered as a source of warmth or energy or glory etc
    • n sun the rays of the sun "the shingles were weathered by the sun and wind"
    • n Sun first day of the week; observed as a day of rest and worship by most Christians
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

Sun. Cheyenne Sun. Cheyenne
Pictograph, including sun. Coyotero Apache Pictograph, including sun. Coyotero Apache
The Wind and the Sun The Wind and the Sun
The youth tries to catch the hen as the Sister of the Sun watches The youth tries to catch the hen as the Sister of the Sun watches
The king, the youth and the Sister of the Sun The king, the youth and the Sister of the Sun
East o' the Sun & West o' the Moon East o' the Sun & West o' the Moon
Worship of the Sun-God at Sippara Worship of the Sun-God at Sippara
"Sun, Stand Thou Still Upon Gibeon...." "Sun, Stand Thou Still Upon Gibeon...."

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The sun is approximately 149 million kilometres from the earth
    • Sun Any heavenly body which forms the center of a system of orbs.
    • n Sun (Bot) See Sunn.
    • Sun That which resembles the sun, as in splendor or importance; any source of light, warmth, or animation. "For the Lord God is a sun and shield.""I will never consent to put out the sun of sovereignity to posterity."
    • Sun The direct light or warmth of the sun; sunshine. "Lambs that did frisk in the sun ."
    • Sun The luminous orb, the light of which constitutes day, and its absence night; the central body round which the earth and planets revolve, by which they are held in their orbits, and from which they receive light and heat. Its mean distance from the earth is about 92,500,000 miles, and its diameter about 860,000.
    • v. t Sun To expose to the sun's rays; to warm or dry in the sun; as, to sun cloth; to sun grain. "Then to sun thyself in open air."
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: The sun is about three million miles closer to the earth on January 1st than it is on June 1st.
    • n sun The central body of the solar system, around which the earth and other planets revolve, retained in their orbits by its attraction, and supplied with energy by its radiance. Its mean distance from the earth is a little less than 93 millions of miles, its horizontal parallax being 8.″80 ± 0.″02. Its mean apparent diameter is 32′ 04″; its real diameter 806,500 miles, 109½ times that of the earth. Its volume, or bulk, is therefore a little more than 1,300,000 times that of the earth. Its mass—that is, the quantity of matter in it—is 330,000 times as great as that of the earth, and is about 900 times as great as the united masses of all the planets. The force of gravity at the sun's surface is nearly 28 times as great as at the earth's surface. The sun's mean density (mass ÷ volume) is only one fourth that of the earth, or less than one and a half times that of water. By means of the spots its rotation can be determined. It is found that the sun's equator is inclined 7¼° to the plane of the ecliptic, with its ascending node in (celestial) longitude 73° 40′ . The period of rotation appears to vary systematically in different latitudes, being about 25 days at the equator, while in solar latitude 40° it is fully 27. Beyond 45° there are no spots by which the rate of rotation can be determined. The cause of this peculiar variation in the rate of the sun's surface motion is still unexplained, and presents one of the most important problems of solar research. The sun's visible surface is called the photosphere, and is made up of minute irregularly rounded “granules,” intensely brilliant, and apparently floating in a darker medium. These are usually 400 or 500 miles in diameter, and so distributed in streaks and groups as to make the surface, seen with a low-power telescope, look much like rough drawing-paper. Near sun-spots, and sometimes elsewhere, the granules are often drawn out into long filaments. (See sun-spot.) In the neighborhood of the sun-spots, and to some extent upon all parts of the sun, faculæ (bright streaks which are due to an unusual crowding together and upheaval of the granules of the photosphere) are found. They are especially conspicuous near the edge of the disk. At the time of a total eclipse certain scarlet cloud-like objects are usually observed projecting beyond the edge of the moon. These are the prominences or protuberances, which in 1868 were proved by the spectroscope to consist mainly of hydrogen, always, however, mixed with at least one other unidentified gaseous element (provisionally named helium), and often interpenetrated with the vapors of magnesium, iron, and other metals. It was also immediately discovered by Janssen and Lockyer that these beautiful and vivacious objects can be observed at any time with the spectroscope, and that they are only extensions from an envelop of incandescent gases which overlies the photosphere like a sheet of scarlet flame, and is known as the chromosphere. Its thickness is very irregular, but averages about 5,000 miles. The prominences are often from 50,000 to 100,000 miles in height, and occasionally exceed 200,000; they are less permanent than the spots, and their changes and motions are correspondingly swift. They are not conflned to limited zones of the sun's surface; those of the greatest brilliance and activity are, however, usually connected with spots, or with the faculæ which attend the spots. The corona—the most impressive feature of a total eclipse—is a great “glory” of irregular outline surrounding the sun, and composed of nebulous rays and streams which protrude from the solar surface, and extend sometimes to a distance of several millions of miles, especially in the plane of the sun's equator. The lower parts are intensely bright, but the other parts are faint and indefinite. Its real nature, as a true solar appendage and no mere optical or atmospheric phenomenon, has been abundantly demonstrated by both the spectroscope and the camera. Its visual spectrum is characterized by a vivid bright line in the green (the so-called 1474 line, first observed in 1869) and by the faintly visible lines of hydrogen. Since then many other lines have been brought out by photography in the violet and ultra-violet parts of the spectrum. This proves that the corona consists largely of some unidentified gaseous element (provisionally known as coronium), mingled to some extent with hydrogen and metallic vapors, and probably impregnated with meteoric dust. The fact that the corona is observable only during the few moments of a total solar eclipse makes its study slow and difficult. Huggins has attempted to overcome the difficulty by means of photography, and, though without an absolute success so far, the results are not wholly discouraging. The spectroscope enables us to determine the presence in the sun of certain well-known terrestrial elements in the state of vapor. The solar spectrum is marked by numerous dark lines (known as Fraunhofer's lines), and between 1850 and 1860 their explanation was worked out as depending upon the selective absorption due to the transmission of the light from the photosphere through the overlying atmosphere of cooler gases and vapors. Kirchhoff was the first (in 1859) to identify many of the familiar elements whose vapors thus impress their signature upon the sunlight. According to the recent investigations of Rowland (not yet entirely completed), thirty-six of the chemical elements are already identified in the solar atmosphere, all of them metals, hydrogen excepted. Among them barium, calcium, carbon, chromium, cobalt, hydrogen, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, silicon, sodium, titanium, and vanadium are either specially conspicuous or theoretically important. The fact that some of the most abundant and important of the terrestrial elements fail to show themselves is, of course, striking, and probably significant. Chlorin, oxygen (probably), nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulphur are none of them apparent; it would, however, be illogical and unsafe to infer from their failure to manifest themselves that they are necessarily absent. A difference of opinion prevails as to the precise region of the solar atmosphere in which Fraunhofer's lines originate. Some hold that the absorption which produces them takes place almost entirely in a comparatively thin stratum known as the reversing-layer, just above the surface of the photosphere. Lockyer holds, on the other hand, that many of them originate at a high elevation, and even above the chromosphere. Photometric observations show that the brilliance of the solar surface far exceeds that of any artificial light: it is about 150 times as great as that of the lime-cylinder of the calcium-light, and from two to four times as great as that of the “crater” of the electric arc. It is to be noted that the brightness of the sun's disk falls off greatly near the edge, owing to the general absorption by the solar atmosphere. The solar constant is defined as the quantity of heat (in calories) received in a unit of time by an area of a square meter perpendicularly exposed to the sun's rays at the upper surface of the earth's atmosphere, when the earth is at its mean distance from the sun. This quantity can be determined, with some approach to accuracy (say within 10 or 15 per cent.), by observations with pyrheliometers and actinometers. The earliest determinations (by J. Herschel and Pouillet, in 1838) gave about 19 calories a minute; later and more elaborate observations give larger results. Langley's observations make it very probable that its value is not under 30. Assuming it, however, as 25, it appears that the amount of energy incident upon the earth's atmosphere in the sun's rays is nearly 2⅓ continuous horse-power per square meter when the sun is vertical; at the sea-level this is reduced about one third by the atmospheric absorption. The total amount of energy radiated by the sun's surface defies conception; it is fully 100,000 continuous horse-power or more than 1.100,000 calories a minute for every square meter, and according to Ericsson more than 400 times as great as that radiated by a surface of molten iron. It would melt in one minute a shell of ice 50 feet thick incasing the photosphere : to supply an equal amount by combustion would require the hourly burning of a layer of the best anthracite more than 20 feet thick—more than a ton for every square foot of surface. As to the temperature of the sun, our knowledge is comparatively vague. We have no means of determining with accuracy from our present laboratory data the temperature the photosphere must have in order to enable it to emit heat at the known rate. Various (and high) authorities set it all the way from about 2,500° C. to several millions of degrees. Experiments with burning-glasses, however, and observations upon the penetrating power of the solar rays, demonstrate that the temperature of the photosphere is certainly higher than that of any known terrestrial source, even the electric arc itself. The only theory yet proposed concerning the maintenance of the sun's heat which meets the case at all is that of Helmholtz, who finds the explanation in a slow contraction of the solar globe. A yearly shrinkage of about 250 feet (or 300 feet, if we accept Langley's value of the solar constant) in the sun's diameter would make good the whole annual expenditure of radiant energy, and maintain the temperature unchanged. If this is the true explanation, it follows, of course, that in time—probably in about eight or ten millions of years—the solar heat will begin to wane, and will at last be exhausted. It should be noted also that certain other causes—such, for instance, as the fall of meteors on the sun—contribute something to its heat-supply; but all of them combined will account for not more than a small percentage of the whole. The view now generally accepted of the constitution of the sun accords with this theory of the solar heat. The sun is believed to be, in the main, a mass of intensely heated gas and vapor, powerfully compressed by its own gravity. The central part is entirely gaseous, because its temperature, being from physical necessity higher than that of the inclosing photosphere, is far above the so-called “critical point” for every known element; no solidification, no liquefaction even, can therefore occur in the solar depths. But near the outer surface radiation to space is nearly free, the temperature is lowered to a point below the “critical point” of certain substances, and under the powerful pressure due to solar gravity condensation of the vapors begins, and thus a sheet of incandescent cloud is formed, which constitutes the photosphere. The chromosphere consists of the permanent gases and uncondensed vapors which overlie the cloud-sheet, while the corona still remains in great degree a mystery, as regards both the substances which compose it and the forces which produce and arrange its streamers. See also cut under sun-spot.
    • n sun The sunshine; a sunny place; a place where the beams of the sun fall: as, to stand in the sun (that is, to stand where the direct rays of the sun fall).
    • n sun Anything eminently splendid or luminous : that which is the chief source of light, honor, glory, or prosperity.
    • n sun The luminary or orb which constitutes the center of any system of worlds: as, the fixed stars may be suns in their respective systems.
    • n sun A revolution of the earth round the sun; a year.
    • n sun The rising of the sun; sunrise; day.
    • n sun In heraldry, a bearing representing the sun, usually surrounded by rays. It is common to fill the disk with the features of a human face. When anything else is represented there, it is mentioned in the blazon: as, the sun, etc., charged in the center with an eye. See sun in splendor, below.
    • n sun In electric lighting, a group of incandescent lamps arranged concentrically under a reflector at, near, or in the ceiling of a room or auditorium.
    • sun To expose to the sun's rays; warm or dry in the sunshine; insolate: as, to sun cloth.
    • sun To become warm or dry in the sunshine.
    • n sun See sunn.
    • n sun A Japanese measure of length, equal to of a meter, or 1.19 inches.
    • n sun An amended spelling of son.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: It would take more than 150 years to drive a car to the sun.
    • n Sun sun the body which is the source of light and heat to our planetary system: a body which forms the centre of a system of orbs: that which resembles the sun in brightness or value: the sunshine: a revolution of the earth round the sun, a year: sunrise, day:
    • v.t Sun to expose to the sun's rays
    • v.i Sun to become warm in the sunshine:—pr.p. sun′ning; pa.t. and pa.p. sunned
    • n Sun sun (her.) a bearing representing the sun
    • ***

Quotations

  • Maori Proverb
    Maori Proverb
    “Turn your face to the sun and the shadows fall behind you.”
  • Mark Twain
    Mark%20Twain
    “A banker is a fellow who lends his umbrella when the sun is shining and wants it back the minute it begins to rain.”
  • C. S. Lewis
    C.%20S.%20Lewis
    “I believe in Christianity as I believe in the rising sun; not because I see it, but by it I can see all else.”
  • Scottish Proverb
    Scottish Proverb
    “If the doctor cures, the sun sees it; if he kills, the earth hides it.”
  • Jean Paul Richter
    Jean%20Paul%20Richter
    “Every friend is to the other a sun, and a sunflower also. He attracts and follows.”
  • Victor Hugo
    Victor%20Hugo
    “Laughter is the sun that drives winter from the human face.”

Idioms

Day in the sun - If you have your day in the sun, you get attention and are appreciated.
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Place in the sun - If you have your place in the sun, you find wealth, happiness or whatever you are looking for in life.
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
OE. sunne, sonne, AS. sunne,; akin to OFries. sunne, D. zon, OS. & OHG. sunna, G. sonne, Icel. sunna, Goth. sunna,; perh. fr. same root as L. sol,. √297. Cf. Solar South
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
A.S. sunne; Ice. sunna, Ger. sunne.

Usage

In literature:

It became a dense fog when the sun rose, and did not clear up until the sun was fairly high above the horizon.
"Across Unknown South America" by Arnold Henry Savage Landor
When summer came the blue star would be a sun as hot as the yellow sun and Ragnarok would be between them.
"Space Prison" by Tom Godwin
We'll all be out o' this a good hour afore sun-up.
"The Death Shot" by Mayne Reid
Hence an eclipse of the Sun does not and cannot occur at every New Moon, but only occasionally.
"The Story of Eclipses" by George Chambers
With that invention we could go from sun to sun.
"Hunters Out of Space" by Joseph Everidge Kelleam
The same force for minute satellite or mighty sun.
"Pharaoh's Broker" by Ellsworth Douglass
The sun proving hot, he peeped within the cook-house.
"The Adventures of Bobby Orde" by Stewart Edward White
Frank, basking in the morning sun, kept his eyes on it merely out of curiosity.
"Frank of Freedom Hill" by Samuel A. Derieux
Well, from the middle of it the sun is just going to rise.
"Adventures of a Young Naturalist" by Lucien Biart
The sun comes next; for it must be remembered that, according to the old system of astronomy, the sun was a planet.
"Myths and Marvels of Astronomy" by Richard A. Proctor
The sun was shining overhead; the sun they would never see again.
"The Pools of Silence" by H. de Vere Stacpoole
The sun was just rising.
"What the Moon Saw: and Other Tales" by Hans Christian Andersen
A ray of the setting sun shoots into the bare cells of one of the captives, for God's sun shines upon the evil and the good.
"Fairy Tales of Hans Christian Andersen" by Hans Christian Andersen
If the earth is attracted by the sun, why does it not tumble into the sun?
"The Story of the Heavens" by Robert Stawell Ball
The popular translation of the name Haleakala is "The House of the Sun"; literally the word means "The House Built by the Sun.
"The Book of the National Parks" by Robert Sterling Yard
We do not get our heat from the sun by conduction; we cannot, because there is nothing between us and the sun to conduct it.
"Common Science" by Carleton W. Washburne
It was a sun-tanned young man who walked with brisk strides into the office of Admiral Struthers.
"Astounding Stories of Super-Science, June, 1930" by Various
And there were sun, moon and all the stars, wind, clouds, rain, and dew.
"The Chinese Fairy Book" by Various
After the first snake was caught, and held aloft for the blessing of the sun, he did not wonder.
"The Flute of the Gods" by Marah Ellis Ryan
Great sun festival to-day without any sun.
"Farthest North" by Fridtjof Nansen
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In poetry:

Bright as ever flows the sea,
Bright as ever shines the sun,
But alas! they seem to me
Not the sun that used to be,
Not the tides that used to run.
"Changed. (Birds Of Passage. Flight The Third)" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
"Nay, better to go cold your whole life long
Than do the sun, than do your soul such wrong:
And if the sun shine not, be life's the blame
And yours the pride, who scorned the meaner flame."
"Retro Santhanas" by Edith Nesbit
But Patience! when the sun is in the deep,
The Star will beam upon me suddenly,
And ere the sun-god waketh from his sleep,
The dear one shall be mine for whom I weep,
Mine, mine alone for all eternity.
"Star In The East" by Walter Richard Cassels
Love is the sun, and love is the sea;
Love is the tide that comes and goes;
Flowing and flowing it comes to me;
Ebbing and ebbing to thee it flows!
Oh my sun, and my wind, and tide!
My sea, and my shore, and all beside!
"Love Is Home" by George MacDonald
Nay, if their God and thou be one,
If thou and this thing be the same,
Thou shouldst not look upon the sun;
The sun grows haggard at thy name.
Come down, be done with, cease, give o'er;
Hide thyself, strive not, be no more.
"Before A Crucifix" by Algernon Charles Swinburne
'"O Sun" (not this strong fool whom thou, Sir Knave,
Hast overthrown through mere unhappiness),
"O Sun, that wakenest all to bliss or pain,
O moon, that layest all to sleep again,
Shine sweetly: twice my love hath smiled on me."
"Gareth And Lynette" by Alfred Lord Tennyson

In news:

Sun, sun, sun, here it comes, northern Utah.
Courtesy of Sun City Veterans Association Cadet Devin Oliver, battalion commander of the Bluffton JROTC, gave a presentation on the history of Flag Day during ceremonies at Sun City.
Vancouver Sun, Special to the Sun.
Enlarge Jeff Piorkowski, Sun News Jordan Rzepka, 10, is among a group of children playing "Hear the Bells Ring" on xylophones JEFF PIORKOWSKI/SUN NEWS agnon gallery (5 photos).
Sun, and more sun in the forecast.
Sarasota, FL grandma accused of bringing granddaughter along on drug deals (Sun Sentinel, Sun sentinel).
JOHN FITZHUGH/SUN HERALD Gregg Allman plays during the Sun & Sand Film & Music Festival concerts at Jones Park in Gulfport on Saturday Nov 10, 2012.
TIM ISBELL/SUN HERALDHeather Adams talks with Habitat for Humanity volunteers inside her future home at Seal Point TIM ISBELL — SUN HERALD Buy Photo.
TIM ISBELL/SUN HERALDHeather Adams talks with Habitat for Humanity volunteers inside her future home at Seal Point TIM ISBELL — SUN HERALD.
TIM ISBELL/SUN HERALDDeShawn Jones shoots a layup during practice at West Harrison Wednesday TIM ISBELL — SUN HERALD Buy Photo.
TIM ISBELL/SUN HERALDDeShawn Jones shoots a layup during practice at West Harrison Wednesday TIM ISBELL — SUN HERALD.
SUN BOWL MANIA All about the Sun Bowl.
JOHN FITZHUGH/SUN HERALDRichard Waters of Gulfport plays one of his Waterphones at his house JOHN FITZHUGH — SUN HERALD Buy Photo.
(NASA/Hinode)This past week, Venus passed between Earth and the Sun, creating what is called a "transit" of the sun.
The Hyundai Sun Bowl is scheduled for Monday, December 31 at noon at Sun Bowl Stadium.
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In science:

Sun, Degeneration of moduli spaces and generalized theta functions, J. of Algebric geomety (to appear). R.G.
Factorization of generalized theta functions at reducible case
Neutrinos produced in the center of the sun have been detected in five experiments.
How the sun shines
Cyg A and B are very similar to each other, as well as to the Sun.
A Differential Spectroscopic Analysis of 16 Cygni A and B
The whole computation takes a few days on a medium Sun workstation without special optimization.
Core percolation in random graphs: a critical phenomena analysis
The neutrino fluxes in fig. 9 are computed in three steps. 1) Evolution inside the Sun needs the formalism presented in section 3. 2) Oscillations in the space between the Sun and the Earth average to zero the coherencies among different neutrino mass eigenstates.
Spectra of neutrinos from dark matter annihilations
The ‘neutrino optical depth’ x spans (0,1), where x = 0 corresponds to the production point in the center of the Sun and x = 1 to the exit from it. E therefore incorporates the radius of the Sun and all the numerical constants that appear in the cross sections.
Spectra of neutrinos from dark matter annihilations
The name “tan point” comes from placing the sun at right infinity, and these points are the points when the SRW can tan since its past path is not blocking the sun.
Excited random walk in two dimensions has linear speed
Together with the Sun, the Earth takes part in the overall rotation of the Milky Way, which at the Sun position has a circular velocity of ∼ 300 km s−1 .
On aberration in gravitational lensing
Based on this fact, the proof of Theorem 1 goes on by applying Kotani theory for Dirac operators as developed by Sun [Sun] along the lines of the work by Kotani and Simon [KS].
Random Dirac operators with time-reversal symmetry
The idea of this test is to measure the time required for radar signals to travel to an inner planet or satellite in two circumstances: a) when the signal passes very near the Sun and b) when the ray does not go near the Sun.
Classical tests of general relativity in brane world models
Cyan: the Sun, which is fixed in this L2 coordinate system (− ˆx toward the Sun, + ˆy in the direction of the Earth’s orbital motion).
New Completeness Methods for Estimating Exoplanet Discoveries by Direct Detection
Obviously, the capture is dominated by the particles with orbits close to parabolic ones with respect to the Sun; besides, the distances between their perihelia and the Sun should be comparable with the radius of the planet orbit rp .
Capture of dark matter by the Solar System. Simple estimates
The many lines separated by 68mHz represent the global p-modes of oscillation of the Sun, with the smallest reliable features, seen around 2.4 mHz, corresponding to oscillations with speeds of < 10 cm s−1 and displacements < 5 m on the Sun’s surface.
Astronomy in Antarctica
In principle, when the DM par ticles enter the Sun, they can lose kinetic energy and settle around the Sun center.
Proceedings of the first workshop on Flavor Symmetries and consequences in Accelerators and Cosmology (FLASY2011)
Sun transit, (θ(t), φ(t)) is the sun position in the sky at time t, and the Sun flux density, FSun , is taken from the daily measurements by the Nobeyama observatory .
The MIDAS telescope for microwave detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays
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