Schizomycetes

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n Schizomycetes a former classification
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n. pl Schizomycetes (Biol) An order of Schizophyta, including the so-called fission fungi, or bacteria. See Schizophyta, in the Supplement.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n schizomycetes A class or group of minute vegetable organisms known as bacteria, microbes, microphytes, etc., and allied forms, belonging to the achlorophyllous division of the Schizosporeæ of Cohn (the Schizophyta of later authorities), or to the Protophyta of still more recent authors. They were at first regarded as being simple fungi, and hence are sometimes still called fission fungi, but recent investigations indicate that they are more closely allied to the Schizophyceæ or lower algæ than to the true fungi. They are probably degenerate algæ, a condition which has been brought about by their saprophytic or parasitic habits. They consist of single cells which may be spherical, oblong, or cylindrical in shape, or of filamentous or various other aggregations of such cells. The cells are commonly about 0.001 millimeter in diameter, or from two to five times that measurement; but smaller and a few larger ones are known. They are, with one or two exceptions, destitute of chlorophyl, and multiply by repeated bipartitions. True spores are known in several forms, but no traces of sexual organs exist. They are saprophytic or parasitic, and occur the world over as saprophytes. They abound in running streams and rivers, in still ponds and ditches; in the sea, in bogs, drains, and refuse-heaps; in the soil, and wherever organic infusions are allowed to stand; in liquids containing organic matter, as blood, milk, wine, etc.; and on solid food-stuff, such as meat, vegetables, preserves, etc. As parasites, numerous species inhabit various organs of men and animals, causing most of the infectious diseases, as tuberculosis, typhoid fever, cholera, etc. Plants are subject to their attack to a more limited degree, a circumstance that is probably due to the acid fluids of the higher vegetable organisms. Schizomycetes vary to a considerable extent according to the conditions of their environment, and hence many growth-forms occur which have frequently received different generic names. The round growth-forms are called Coccus or Micrococcus; the rod-like forms have been termed Bacillus, Bacterium, etc.; the shortly coiled forms are known as Vibrio; the spiral forms have received the names Spirillum or Spirochæta; and the very elongated filiform ones are Leptothrix, etc. Their behavior with reference to the supply or exclusion of oxygen has led to their division by Pasteur into aerobiotic, or such as require a plentiful supply of free oxygen for the purpose of vegetation, and anaërobiotic, or those in which vegetation is promoted by the exclusion of oxygen, or at least is possible when oxygen is excluded. There are however, various intermediate forms. See entophyte, Fungi, Protophyta, Bacteriaceæ, Bacterium, Micrococcus, Leptothrix. Bacillus, Spirillum, Spirochæta, Vibrio.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Schizomycetes skiz-ō-mī-sē′tēz a botanical term for Bacteria, in reference to their commonest mode of reproduction—by transverse division.
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
NL., fr. Gr. to split + , -, a fungus
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Gr. schizein, to cleave, mykēs (pl. mykētes), a mushroom.

Usage

In literature:

The same is true of Schizomycetes, to which all the bacteria, bacillus, spirillum, and vibrio, and a number of other groups belong.
"The Mushroom, Edible and Otherwise" by M. E. Hard
Saccardo also included about 400 species of Myxomycetes and 650 of Schizomycetes.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 11, Slice 3" by Various
He considers them to be veritable schizomycetes, and proposes the name Plox scindens.
"A System of Practical Medicine by American Authors, Vol. I" by Various
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