Saturn

Definitions

  • THE PLANET SATURN WITH TWO OF HIS MOONS
    THE PLANET SATURN WITH TWO OF HIS MOONS
  • WordNet 3.6
    • n Saturn a giant planet that is surrounded by three planar concentric rings of ice particles; the 6th planet from the sun
    • n Saturn (Roman mythology) god of agriculture and vegetation; counterpart of Greek Cronus "Saturday is Saturn's Day"
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Every 14 years, Saturn's rings become briefly invisible to astronomers on Earth. At that time, the plane of the rings is tipped to that of the Earth's orbit, and they are seen edge-on. Since the ring's are so thin, they can't be seen at that angle.
    • Saturn (Roman Myth) One of the elder and principal deities, the son of Cœlus and Terra (Heaven and Earth), and the father of Jupiter. The corresponding Greek divinity was Kro`nos, later CHro`nos, Time.
    • Saturn (Astron) One of the planets of the solar system, next in magnitude to Jupiter, but more remote from the sun. Its diameter is seventy thousand miles, its mean distance from the sun nearly eight hundred and eighty millions of miles, and its year, or periodical revolution round the sun, nearly twenty-nine years and a half. It is surrounded by a remarkable system of rings, and has eight satellites.
    • Saturn (Alchem) The metal lead.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: If you are having problems remembering the planets in their correct order, just remember this sentance "My very educated mother justed served us nine pickles," Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupitor, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto.
    • n Saturn An ancient Italic deity, popularly believed to have appeared in Italy in the reign of Janus, and to have instructed the people in agriculture, gardening, etc., thus elevating them from barbarism to social order and civilization. His reign was sung by the poets as “the golden age.” He became early identified with the Kronos of the Greeks. Ops, the personification of wealth and plenty, was his wife, and both were the especial protectors of agriculture and of all vegetation. His festivals, the Saturnalia, corresponded to the Greek Kronia.
    • n Saturn The most remote of the anciently known planets, appearing at brightest like a first-magnitude star. It revolves in an orbit inclined 2½° to the ecliptic, departing toward the north by that amount near Spica, and toward the south in the ribbon of the Fishes. Its mean distance from the sun is 9.5 times that of the earth, or 883,000,000 miles. Its side-real revolution occupies 29 Julian years and 167 days, its synodical 378 days. The eccentricity of the orbit is considerable, the greatest equation of the center being 6°.4. Owing to the fact that the period of Saturn is very nearly 2½ times that of Jupiter, these planets exercise a curious mutual influence, analogous to that of one pendulum upon another swinging from the same support. Since 1790, when in consequence of this influence Saturn had lagged 50′ behind and Jupiter had advanced 20′ beyond the positions they would have had if undisturbed, Saturn has been moving continually faster, and the whole period of the inequality is 929 years. This is the largest perturbation of those affecting the motions of the principal bodies of our system. Saturn is the greatest planet except Jupiter, its diameter being about 9 times, its volume 697 times, and its mass 93.0 times that of the earth. Its mean density is 0.7, water being unity. Gravity at the surface has the intensity of terrestrial gravity. It is evident that we see only the atmosphere of Saturn. Its albedo is 0.5, about that of a cloud; but its color is decidedly orange. It shows some bands and spots upon its surface which are not constant. The compression of the spheroid of Saturn exceeds that of every other planet, amounting to of its diameter. Its rotation, according to Professor Asaph Hall, is performed in 10h. 14.4m. Its equator is nearly parallel to that of the earth. After the discovery by Galileo of the four satellites of Jupiter, Kepler conjectured that Mars should have two, and Saturn six or eight moons. In fact, Saturn has eight moons, as follows (the distances from the planet being given in thousands of miles):
    • n Saturn In alchemy and old chemistry, lead.
    • n Saturn In heraldry, a tincture, the color black, when blazoning is done by means of the heavenly bodies. See blazon, n., 2.
    • n Saturn The thickness of the ring is considerably less than a hundred miles. Its plane is inclined 7° to the planet's equator and 28° 10’ to the earth's orbit. When Saturn appears in the hind legs of Leo or the water of Aquarius, we see the rings edgewise, and they pass out of sight, remaining invisible as long as the sun shines upon the side away from us, for the ring only shows by the reflected light of the sun. They are best seen when the planet is in Taurus and Scorpio. As soon as Saturn was examined with a telescope (by Galileo), it was seen to present an extraordinary appearance; but this was first recognized and proved to be a ring by Huygens in 1659. In 1674 J. D. Cassini saw the separation between rings A and B, which is hence called the Cassinian division. (It has also been erroneously called Ball's division.) The dusky ring was discovered in 1850 at Cambridge, Massachusetts, by G. P. Bond. The ring was first assumed to be solid. Laplace showed that, upon that assumption, it must be upheld by the attractions of the satellites. B. Peirce in 1851 demonstrated the ring to be fluid—that is, to consist of vast numbers of particles, or small bodies, free to move relatively to one another. This had been suggested by Roberval in the seventeenth century. See cut on preceding page.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Morphine was given its name in 1803 by the discoverer, a 20 year old German pharmacist named Friedrich Saturner. He named it after Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams.
    • n Saturn sat′urn or sā′- the ancient Roman god of agriculture: one of the planets:
    • n Saturn sat′urn or sā′- (her.) a tincture, in colour black
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Quotations

  • Mark Russell
    Mark Russell
    “The scientific theory I like best is that the rings of Saturn are composed entirely of lost airline baggage.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. Saturnus, literally, the sower, fr. serere, satum, to sow. See Season
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Saturnusserĕre, satum, to sow.

Usage

In literature:

Here, in Saturn, a ladder is seen, reaching to the next sphere.
"Dante: His Times and His Work" by Arthur John Butler
Saturn fortunately was ninety degrees around in his orbit.
"Empire" by Clifford Donald Simak
It is likely that Saturn is in a still earlier stage of planetary development than Jupiter.
"A Popular History of Astronomy During the Nineteenth Century" by Agnes M. (Agnes Mary) Clerke
While we have one Moon, Mars two, and Jupiter four, Saturn has no less than eight satellites.
"The Beauties of Nature" by Sir John Lubbock
Through the corn came the cow, like a black Saturn attended by her satellites.
"The Busted Ex-Texan and Other Stories" by W. H. H. Murray
Saturn is the least dense of all, less so than water.
"Astronomy of To-day" by Cecil G. Dolmage
Observed a triple appearance of Saturn.
"Pioneers of Science" by Oliver Lodge
Saturn ranks next to Jupiter in attractiveness for the observer with a telescope.
"Pleasures of the telescope" by Garrett Serviss
The same process was repeated with Saturn, and then with the huge Jupiter.
"The Children's Book of Stars" by G.E. Mitton
We don't know when this mutiny is to come off, but we are close to Saturn now; it can't be long.
"In the Orbit of Saturn" by Roman Frederick Starzl
A dwindling of great Saturn, with its gorgeous, luminous rings came next.
"The World Beyond" by Raymond King Cummings
All over space our conflict has ranged, from Earth to beyond Saturn.
"The Affair of the Brains" by Anthony Gilmore
The mighty Saturn's Seed herself hath bid me openly To bear thee this, while thou in peace of middle night shouldst lie.
"The Æneids of Virgil" by Virgil
Even in good Saturn's day, 'twas hard to find a heart all pure, From the infection of base gain, and gainful lust secure.
"Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine -- Volume 57, No. 351, January 1845" by Various
Reject impossibilities: Pausanias was shown the stone swallowed by Saturn.
"Introduction to the Study of History" by Charles V. Langlois
First thing I'll do is go looking for Saturn.
"FreeChildrenStories.com Collection" by Daniel Errico
Saturn is the evening star at this time of year.
"Astounding Stories of Super-Science, October, 1930" by Various
Remember how the French Convention, like Saturn, devoured its own children.
"The Forerunners" by Romain Rolland
It is within the two others, and therefore its distance from the body of Saturn must be small.
"Harper's New Monthly Magazine, Vol. 2, No. 8, January, 1851" by Various
Mars and Saturn are about to be in strong opposition, and heavy Saturn will soon jump about like Mercury.
"Olla Podrida" by Frederick Marryat
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In poetry:

To her farm, to my farm,
Loathing we returned;
Pale beneath a gallow's arm
The planet Saturn burned.
"Exmoor Verses" by Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch

Great God, who, through the ages,
Has braced the bloodstained hand,
As Saturn, Jove, or Woden
Has led our Warrior band.
"God Of Battles" by General George S Patton Jnr
Test of the poet is knowledge of love,
For Eros is older than Saturn or Jove;
Never was poet, of late or of yore,
Who was not tremulous with love-lore.
"Quatrains" by Ralph Waldo Emerson
And "while the world runs round and round," I said,
"Reign thou apart, a quiet king,
Still as, while Saturn whirls, his steadfast shade
Sleeps on his luminous ring."
"The Palace of Art" by Alfred Lord Tennyson
Into some secret, migrant Realm without,
By the dun Cloak of Darkness wrapped about,
Or by ringed Saturn's Swirl thou may'st be hid
In vain: be sure the Bore will find you out.
"The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám Jr." by Wallace Irwin
Saturn and Love their long repose
Shall burst, more bright and good
Than all who fell, than One who rose,
Than many unsubdu'd:
Not gold, not blood, their altar dowers,
But votive tears and symbol flowers.
"Chorus from Hellas" by Percy Bysshe Shelley

In news:

Data show that Saturn creates solid tides approximately 30 feet (10 meters) in height, which suggests Titan is not made entirely of solid rocky material.
Tides on Saturn's moon Titan point to subsurface ocean.
0 An image from the Cassini spacecraft shows the moon Titan as it passes in front of Saturn.
Saturn's Moons Are Cuter Than Sugarplum Fairies.
Wernher von Braun (far left) and other NASA officials following the successful Saturn V launch of the Apollo 11 mission to the moon.
The Immense Beauty of Saturn.
At the end of November, just as the American car industry was hitting a wall, my dear Saturn was totaled , around midnight, in front of my house.
This Vauxhall/Opel could be sold as a Saturn in the US by 2010.
2008 Honda CR-V vs 2008 Nissan Rogue vs 2008 Saturn VUE Green Line vs 2009 Subaru Forester vs 2008 Toyota RAV4.
Saturn and Mars grace the twilight as September evenings unfold.
INTERVIEWS Stream Two Inch Punch's Full Vaporous 'Saturn: The Slow Jams' EP.
Servicing the Buick Enclave, Chevrolet Traverse, GMC Acadia & Saturn Outlook.
Behind The Wheel 2007 GMC Acadia and Saturn Outlook.
's impressive new Saturn Outlook and GMC Acadia reflect this fresh face for the family wagon.
NASA's Cassini spacecraft has spotted a river system stretching more than 200 miles on Saturn's moon Titan.
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In science:

Large scattering events like the ones described here constitute a mechanism by which giant planets might, after forming at orbital radii similar to those of Jupiter and Saturn, be transported out to distances comparable to those of the disk features described above.
Large scattering events and the formation of planetary systems
Shu, Johnstone, & Hollenbach (1993) proposed photoevaporation of the Solar Nebula as the gas removal mechanism that explains the differences in envelope masses between the gas-rich giants, Jupiter and Saturn; and the gas-poor giants, Uranus and Neptune.
Viscous diffusion and photoevaporation of stellar disks
Shu, Johnstone, & Hollenbach (1993) show that the gravitational radius for the Solar nebula is at the orbital distance of Saturn, giving a possible explanation for the sharp differences in envelope masses between the gas-rich giants, Jupiter and Saturn, and the gas-poor giants, Uranus and Neptune.
Viscous diffusion and photoevaporation of stellar disks
Krisher, T.P., Anderson, J.D., and Campbell, J.K., “Test of the gravitational redshift effect at Saturn”, Phys.
The Confrontation between General Relativity and Experiment
Cassini, which was nearer Jupiter’s orbit than Saturn’s at that time.
Astrophysics in 2005
How many moons does Saturn have? Well, many.
Astrophysics in 2005
Some moons of Saturn are more equal than others.
Astrophysics in 2005
Kortenkamp, S.J., Wetherill, G.W., 2000. Terrestrial planet and asteroid formation in the presence of giant planets I. Relative velocities of planetesimals subject to Jupiter and Saturn perturbations.
Meteoritical and dynamical constraints on the growth mechanisms and formation times of asteroids and Jupiter
In addition, we may also consider the perihelion-based negative tests for Jupiter (a = 5.20 AU) and Saturn (a = 9.53 AU) (Iorio 2006c), based on the model by Brownstein and Moffat (2006) fitted to all the presently available data points of Pioneer 10/11.
Test of the Pioneer anomaly with the Voyager 2 radio-ranging distance measurements to Uranus and Neptune
Then, the availability of early data may make possible to confirm whether or not the anomaly arises at Pioneer 11 at Saturn encounter, as it is suggested by Fig. 7 of Ref. .
Long range gravity tests and the Pioneer anomaly
The processes by which comets are captured into periodic orbits seem, however, sufficiently complex that retrodicting a uniform capture rate over the past million years is surely a bit risky (e.g., Hahn et al. 2006 on P/2004 Al, which Saturn will hand over to Jupiter in 2026.
Astrophysics in 2006
Saturn’s barycenter of mass in Titan’s frame, and d the distance between this Saturn’s barycenter of mass and the origin of the frame (Titan’s barycenter of mass).
Titan's rotation: A 3-dimensional theory
Let us focus on two gravity-connected ob jects such as EarthMoon, Earth-Jupiter, Earth-Saturn, Earth-Sun, Earth-nearest stars.
Measurements of the Gravity Waves Velocity
Moreover, the peaks corresponding to Venus, Jupiter and Saturn should change their frequency in accordance with the changing distance between Earth and these planets during their orbital motion around the Sun.
Measurements of the Gravity Waves Velocity
The aim of this short contribution is to report some preliminary results on a theoretical model of the internal structure of Titan,the satellite of Saturn.
A model of the internal structure of Titan: first results
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