Reverse shell

Definitions

  • Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • Reverse shell a univalve shell which has its volutions the reversed way of the common screw
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Etymology

Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. reversus, pa.p. of revertĕre, to turn back—re-, back, vertĕre, to turn.

Usage

In literature:

If you could only hear the nice vibrations of the "golden shell," you might reverse your decision.
"The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 4, No. 23, September, 1859" by Various
The shell's position was reversed.
"Two Thousand Miles Below" by Charles Willard Diffin
Claws stood wide open; bony shells lay still under their bristling prickles; some reversed showed their livid hollows.
"Toilers of the Sea" by Victor Hugo
When one side has been rounded, the shells are reversed, and the other side completed as above.
"The Ports, Harbours, Watering-places and Picturesque Scenery of Great Britain Vol. 2" by William Finden
Reverse shells, or such whose mouth when viewed in front is on the left side, are generally held in much estimation by collectors.
"Zoological Illustrations, Volume I" by William Swainson
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In science:

We consider the situation where the inner faster shell overtakes the outer slower one and generates forward and reverse shocks in the respective shells.
Photon Emission in a Cascade from Relativistic Protons Initiated by Residual Thermal Photons in Gamma-Ray Bursts
We further assume that the matter violently ejected by SN as a starburst evolves is efficiently thermalized at a reverse shock and well mixed with the gas that evaporates from the cold radiative shell segments.
Evolution of the X-ray luminosity and metallicity of starburst blown superbubbles
However, reverse shocks that decelerate material as it rams into dense shells ahead seem more likely (Owocki et al. 1988).
X-ray Line Emission from the Hot Stellar Wind of theta 1 Ori C
To finish the discussion, it is also interesting to point out that the behaviour shown by the P ′t data, growing with p for p1/2 and the reverse for p3/2 , does not agree with the theoretical results which increase with p for both shells.
Meson Exchange Currents in (e,e'p) recoil polarization observables
In order to retrieve such information, very early afterglows need to be studied, which contain information on the emission from the reverse shock region during and shortly after the reverse shock crosses the fireball shell at the very beginning of the shell-medium interaction.
Gamma-Ray Bursts: Progress, Problems & Prospects
The electrons are continuously accelerated only until the reverse shock crosses the initial shell.
Gamma-Ray Bursts: Progress, Problems & Prospects
Due to the high density of the shell at the shock crossing time, the reverse shock emission is in the fast cooling regime.
Gamma-Ray Bursts: Progress, Problems & Prospects
A shelling < of ∆ is said to be a two-way shelling if the facets in the reversed order also give a shelling.
Nice Initial Complexes of Some Classical Ideals
For η < ΓBM , T = tdec we have the usual “thin shell” case, where deceleration and transition to the self-similar expansion occurs at the usual rdec , tdec , and at this time the reverse shock has crossed the ejecta and is marginally relativistic.
Gamma-Ray Bursts
An external shock would follow after this, whose radius in the “thin shell” limit would be again given by equation (15), with a standard forward blast wave but no (or a weaker) reverse shock [304, 305], due to the very high Alfv´en speed in the ejecta.
Gamma-Ray Bursts
For a long duration outflow, however, the dynamics and the deceleration radius would be similar to the “thick shell” case of §4.6, i.e. the case with a relativistic reverse shock [279].
Gamma-Ray Bursts
Generally the reverse shock can expected to be mildly relativistic (thin shell case; see, however, below).
Gamma-Ray Bursts
However, the observations of optical flashes in these two ob jects but not in lower Eiso ob jects appears compatible with having a relativistic (thick shell) reverse shock with pair formation.
Gamma-Ray Bursts
For the partons l and k that form the dipole, the momenta pl and pk plus three splitting variables are mapped reversibly to the momenta of three daughter partons, ˆpl , ˆpk , and ˆpm+1 after the splitting, with all of the parton momenta being on-shell.
The NLO multileg working group: summary report
They find that as the latest shell catches the older shell, a forward shock moves into the older ejecta and a reverse shock moves into the new ejecta with typical electron densities of 100-300 cm−3 and electron temperatures of about 0.1-0.9 keV.
The XMM-Newton Detection of Extended Emission from the Nova Remnant of T Pyxidis
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