• Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Retarder (Photog) A substance, as potassium bromide, added to a developer to retard its action.
    • Retarder (Steam Boiler) Any of various devices, as a helix of flat metal strip, introduced into a boiler tube to increase the heating effect of the fire.
    • Retarder One who, or that which, retards.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Einstein couldn't speak fluently when he was nine. His parents thought he might be retarded.
    • n retarder One who retards; that which serves as a hindrance, impediment, or cause of retardation.
    • n retarder An obstruction, usually in the form of a twisted piece of sheet-metal, placed in a boiler-flue to retard the hot gases and make them give up their heat to the water in the boiler.
    • n retarder A device, such as a dash-pot, for checking the too rapid motion of any mechanism.
    • ***


  • Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
    “Science has been seriously retarded by the study of what is not worth knowing and of what is not knowable.”
  • George Houston
    George Houston
    “Anything that interferes with individual progress ultimately will retard group progress.”


In literature:

This, however, so retarded our departure, that night had fallen by the time we reached Blois.
"The Suitors of Yvonne" by Raphael Sabatini
Donald told George he must not think of going back with the rescuing party, as his weakness would retard its progress.
"The Lure of the Labrador Wild" by Dillon Wallace
He sprang after him with outstretched arms, but the table retarded his pursuit.
"Monsieur Lecoq" by Emile Gaboriau
This will retard The work a month at least.
"The Alchemist" by Ben Jonson
What retarded evolution, she asked herself in these hours, mightn't poor Charlotte all unwittingly have precipitated?
"The Golden Bowl" by Henry James
Come what may, you can quicken nothing, and can retard nothing.
"The English Constitution" by Walter Bagehot
It was in vain to pursue him, without dogs to retard his flight.
"David Crockett: His Life and Adventures" by John S. C. Abbott
You can destroy the enemy by retarding his march.
"The Memoirs of General W. T. Sherman, Complete" by William T. Sherman
The heavy overhanging timber retarded progress very much, as did also the short turns in so narrow a stream.
"Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant, Complete" by Ulysses S. Grant
Every doctor knows he cannot hurry your recovery, whatever he may say, and you only retard it by being over-anxious to get strong.
"As a Matter of Course" by Annie Payson Call
So far advanced to the neighbourhood, I would not be retarded, and I came on.
"The Adventures of Harry Richmond, Complete" by George Meredith
Our French milliner there has helped in retarding her quite against her will.
"The Amazing Marriage, Complete" by George Meredith
A mulch of dry hay, grass clippings, leaves, and the like will also retard rapid surface evaporation.
"Gardening Without Irrigation: or without much, anyway" by Steve Solomon
The heavy overhanging timber retarded progress very much, as did also the short turns in so narrow a stream.
"Memoirs of Three Civil War Generals, Complete" by U. S. Grant, W. T. Sherman, P. H. Sheridan
The accompanying shock was severe, but not heavy enough seriously to retard her recovery, which went on slowly.
"The Allen House" by T. S. Arthur
Whether it has done more for the advancement or the retardation of man may be a subject for dispute.
"London Days" by Arthur Warren
His ally, the current, has retarded us sixty miles in the last twenty-four hours!
"Memoirs of Service Afloat, During the War Between the States" by Raphael Semmes
It was suggested that the whole of the retardation might be owing to these causes.
"A System of Logic: Ratiocinative and Inductive" by John Stuart Mill
If a small quantity of sodium sulphite is employed as an anti-oxidant and to retard coagulation, it is not necessary to flood tanks.
"The Preparation of Plantation Rubber" by Sidney Morgan
S'il y a saisie du navire, elle est expediee avec le moins de retard possible par le capteur.
"International Law. A Treatise. Volume II (of 2)" by Lassa Francis Oppenheim

In poetry:

The good Lady Sandys burst into a laughter
To see how the ballocks came wobbling after,
And had not their weight retarded the foe,
Indeed't had gone hard with Signior Dildo.
"Signior Dildo" by Lord John Wilmot
Ah me! what envious magic thins my fold?
What mutter'd spell retards their late increase?
Such lessening fleeces must the swain behold,
That e'er with Doric pipe essays to please.
"Elegy VIII. He Describes His Early Love of Poetry, and Its Consequences" by William Shenstone
Then the Coldstreams on the highlanders' right
Now advanced to engage the enemy in the fight,
But then they halted, unable to go forward,
Because the Russians did their progress retard.
"The Battle of Alma" by William Topaz McGonagall
Because therein we see the end of the bad men,
Which must appall the audience - deny it who can
Which will help to retard them from going astray,
While witnessing in a theatre a moral play.
"Lines in Defence of the Stage" by William Topaz McGonagall
Though swelling waves oft beat him back,
And tempests make him half a wreck,
And passions strong, with dangerous tack,
Retard his course,
Yet Christ the pilot all will check,
And quell their force.
"Epistle To The Rev. J--- B---, Whilst Journeying For The Recovery Of His Health" by Patrick Branwell Bronte
No balk retarding, no anchor anchoring, on no rock striking,
Swift, glad, content, unbereav'd, nothing losing,
Of all able and ready at any time to give strict account,
The divine ship sails the divine sea.
"Carol Of Words" by Walt Whitman

In news:

The Supreme Court ruled Thursday that executing mentally retarded murderers violates the constitutional ban on cruel and unusual punishment.
The 6-3 ruling is confined to mentally retarded defendants convicted of murder and does not address the constitutionality of capital punishment in general.
Penn plays sad 'Sam' / He's full of integrity as retarded father.
Nine highly regarded veterans of the American Foreign Service are calling for an end to the death penalty for the mentally retarded .
Retarded Wendy's killer expected to get life term.
Mel Carnahan has commuted the death sentence of a convicted murderer, saying there is little doubt that the man is mentally retarded and unfit for execution.
Hope for the Retarded .
A fact that is impressively underlined by more than 600,000 Voith Retarders delivered so far.
These Retarders run with the cooling agent of the vehicle and are maintenance-free.
In this file photo made July 13, 2006, a P2-V Neptune air tanker drops retardant on a wildfire southwest of Elko, Nev.
Thems the breaks when you work with retarded people.
Scorch -Retarding TAIC Specialty Coagent.
With retardant's potential threat to wildlife and water, authorities ponder limiting its use.
It prevents heart disease, diabetes and kidney failure, and it greatly retards all types of cancer.
Here's how to retard tarnishing .

In science:

There is no retardation in contact interaction.
Hole-Hole Contact Interaction in the t-J Model
Contact interaction is caused by exchange of spin excitations with momentum q ∼ π and has no retardation.
Hole-Hole Contact Interaction in the t-J Model
D− = D†+ , and p, p′ = 1, 2, with p = 1 referring to the retarded block and p = 2 to the advanced block.
Introduction to the Supersymmetry Method for the Gaussian Random-Matrix Ensembles
We explicitly compute the (uniquely defined) linearized retarded gravitational waves emitted by such ob jects, which are the coherent superposition of the gravitational waves generated by the motion of the massive point-like rocket and of those generated by the energy-momentum distribution of the photon fluid.
Photon rockets and gravitational radiation
However, we shall here tackle directly the physics behind the paradox raised by Bonnor by noticing that there is a mathematically well-defined situation in which we can self-consistently describe a recoiling photon rocket and compute the retarded gravitational waves it generates.
Photon rockets and gravitational radiation
Remembering that Kinnersley’s solution can be taken to coincide with a static Schwarzschild spacetime before some retarded time, we do not have to worry about the possible presence of incoming gravitational radiation.
Photon rockets and gravitational radiation
In section 4, we then compute explicitly the (retarded) linearized gravitational field generated by the total Tµν .
Photon rockets and gravitational radiation
In particular, it is given by a compact-support three-dimensional integral; the “bad” ∼ 1/r2 behaviour of the source term at future null infinity causing no convergence problem in the retarded potential integral.
Photon rockets and gravitational radiation
Here, as in section 2, the suffix R indicates that all s-dependent quantities must be evaluated at the retarded point sR (x) (Li´enard-Wiechert potential).
Photon rockets and gravitational radiation
The retarded integral (4.9a) is convergent when −1 < Re(B ) < 0, and is easily seen to have a simple pole at B = 0 when analytically continued upwards in Re(B ).
Photon rockets and gravitational radiation
Indeed, both distributions have the future light cone of zµ (σ) as support, and using the fact that the volume element in retarded coordinates (2.11) does not depend on the acceleration ˙uµ one sees immediately that R d4x δ (t − r − σ) ϕ(x) = R d4x δ (sR (x) − σ) ϕ(x)].
Photon rockets and gravitational radiation
Having generalized (4.23) to an elementary source with support on a light cone centered on L, we can pass to a general retarded-time-dependence of the source by integrating over the parameter σ using the decomposition H (sR (x)) = R dσ H (σ) δ(sR (x)−σ).
Photon rockets and gravitational radiation
After having shown the mathematical and physical (∀x ∈ R4 , ∂ν T µν (x) = 0) consistency of the definition of massive point-like photon rockets in special relativity, we have studied the retarded linearized gravitational field that they generate.
Photon rockets and gravitational radiation
GR (GA ) is the retarded (advanced) Green function.
Persistent Currents for Interacting Electrons: a Simple Hartree-Fock Picture
In both cases the result of the limit will be a function of the retarded coordinate x− and will depend on the value of the parameter a that characterizes the asymptotic behavior of the spacetime.
Trace anomaly and Hawking effect in generic 2D dilaton gravity theories