R

Definitions

  • A pump with a 'Temperance' banner forms a letter R
    A pump with a 'Temperance' banner forms a letter R
  • WordNet 3.6
    • n r the length of a line segment between the center and circumference of a circle or sphere
    • n R the 18th letter of the Roman alphabet
    • n r the 18th letter of the Roman alphabet
    • n R (physics) the universal constant in the gas equation: pressure times volume = R times temperature; equal to 8.3143 joules per kelvin per mole
    • n R a unit of radiation exposure; the dose of ionizing radiation that will produce 1 electrostatic unit of electricity in 1 cc of dry air
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Approximately 55% of movies released are Rated R
    • R är R, the eighteenth letter of the English alphabet, is a vocal consonant. It is sometimes called a semivowel, and a liquid. See Guide to Pronunciation, §§ 178, 179, and 250-254.In words derived from the Greek language the letter h is generally written after r to represent the aspirated sound of the Greek "r, but does not affect the pronunciation of the English word, as rhapsody rhetoric. The English letter derives its form from the Greek through the Latin, the Greek letter being derived from the Phœnician, which, it is believed, is ultimately of Egyptian origin. Etymologically, R is most closely related to ls, and n; as in bandore, mandole; purple, L. purpura; E. chapter, F. chapitre, L. capitulum; E. was, were; hare, G. hase; E. order, F. ordre, L. ordo, ordinis; E. coffer, coffin. "R is the dog's letter and hurreth in the sound."
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: The full name of the Titanic ship is R.M.S. Titanic, which stands for Royal Mail Steamship
    • r The eighteenth letter and fourteenth consonant in the English alphabet, representing a character having a like position and value in the alphabets from which the English is derived—the Latin, Greek, and Phenician. Specimens of its early forms (as in the case of the other letters: see especially A) are given below:
    • r The tag below the curve by which the English (and the Latin) R differs from the later (Greek form P was added to the latter in order to distinguish it from the p-sign after this had assumed its present form; the addition was first made on Greek ground, but was abandoned there when the distinction of the p- and r-signs had become established in another way. The value of the character has always been essentially the same; it represents a continuous sonant utterance made between the tip of the tongue and the roof of the mouth, at a point more or less removed backward from the upper front teeth. The sound is so resonant and continuable as to be nearly akin with the vowels; and it is, in fact, used as a vowel in certain languages, as Sanskrit and some of the Slavic dialects: in normal English pronunciation, however, it never has that value. By its mode of production it is nearly akin with l, and r and l are to a large extent interchangeable with one another in linguistic history. It is often classed as a “liquid,” along with l, m, n; less often, but more accurately, as a semivowel, with l, y, w. It also, on no small scale, answers as corresponding sonant (in languages that have no z) to s as surd, and comes from s under sonantizing influences: so in Sanskrit, in Latin (as ara from asa), and in Germanic (as in our were, plural of was). In Anglo-Saxon the initial r of many words was aspirated (that is, pronounced with an h before it), as hring (our ring); but the aspiration was long ago abandoned, both in pronunciation and in spelling. In Greek initial r was always thus aspirated, and the combination was transliterated in Latin by rh instead of hr: hence the frequency of rh iu our words of Greek derivation. Moreover, such an r, when by inflection or composition made medial, became rrh, and double r was in general viewed as rrh: whence that spelling in many of our words (for example, diarrhea, hemorrhage, catarrh, etc.): in recent scientific words and names taken from Greek, the Greek rule and Latin practice as regards the doubling and aspiration of the r are often neglected. The mode of production of the r-sound itself varies greatly in different languages and dialects. Normally its utterance is combined with a distinct trilling or vibration of the tip of the tongue, in various degrees (the sound is thence often called the “dog's letter,” littera canina). But in ordinary English pronunciation this vibration is either extremely slight, or, more commonly, altogether wanting; in fact, the tip of the tongue is drawn too far back into the dome of the palate to admit of vibration; the English r is a smooth r. But further, in many localities, even among the most cultivated speakers, no r is ever really pronounced at all unless followed (in the same word, or, if final, in the word following) by a vowel (for example, in are, farther, pronounced ah, father); it either simply disappears, or, as after most long vowels, is replaced by a bit of neutral-vowel sound, of ũ or é; and after such a long vowel, if it comes to be pronounced by the addition of a vowel, it retains the same neutral-vowel sound as transition-sound (for example, in faring, fearing, pouring, during, firing, souring: the pronunciation is indicated in this work by retaining the r in the same syllable with the long vowel: thus, fār′ ing, fēr′ tng, etc.). An r has a stronger and more frequent influence upon the character of the preceding vowel than any other consonant; hence the reduction to similarity of the vowel-sounds in such words as pert, dirt, curt, earn, myrrh. If all our r's that are written are pronounced, the sound is more common than any other in English utterance (over seven per cent.); the instances of occurrence before a vowel, and so of universal pronunciation, are only half as frequent. There are localities where the normal vibration of the tip of the tongue is replaced by one of the uvula, making a guttural trill, which is still more entitled to the name of “dog's letter” than is the ordinary r: such are considerable parts of France and Germany; the sound appears to occur only sporadically in English pronunciation.
    • r As a medieval Roman numeral, 80, and with a line over it (), 80,000.
    • r As an abbreviation:
    • r Of Rex or Regina, as in George R., Victoria R.
    • r Of Royal, as in R. N. for Royal Navy, R. A. for Royal Academy or Academician, or for Royal Arch (in freemasonry).
    • r Prefixed to a medical prescription (℞), of recipe, take.
    • r Nautical:
    • r In a ship's log-book, of rain.
    • r When placed against a man's name in the paymaster's book, of run away.
    • r Of right (right-hand), as in R. A. for right ascension, R. H. E. for right second entrance (on the stage of a theater).
    • r In math., r is generally a radius vector of coordinates, R the radius of a circle, ρ a radius of curvature.
    • n r An abbreviation of Royal Academy;
    • n r Royal Academician;
    • n r Royal Arch;
    • n r right ascension.
    • n r An abbreviation of Roman Catholic.
    • n r An abbreviation of Royal Dragoons;
    • n r of Rural Dean.
    • n r An abbreviation of Royal Engineers;
    • n r of Royal Exchange.
    • r An abbreviation of Royal Marines;
    • r Royal Mail;
    • r Resident Magistrate.
    • r An abbreviation of Royal Navy.
    • n r An abbreviation of Revised Version (of the Bible).
    • n r An abbreviation of Right Worshipful; Right Worthy.
    • r An abbreviation of Radical;
    • r of railway;
    • r [lowercase] of rare;
    • r [lowercase or cap.] of read;
    • r of Réaumur (see thermometer);
    • r of rector;
    • r of Republican;
    • r [lowercase] of residence and resides;
    • r of response;
    • r of the Latin Respublica, ‘the Republic’;
    • r [lowercase or cap.] of retired;
    • r of river;
    • r [lowercase or cap.] of rod or rods;
    • r of Roma, Rome;
    • r [lowercase or cap.] of rood or roods;
    • r [lowercase] in geometry, of radius (of the incircle); r1, r2, r3, denote the ex-radii beyond a, b, c, respectively; R denotes the radius of the circumcircle;
    • r [capitalized] in psychophysics, an abbreviation of G. Reiz, stimulus.
    • r As a symbol: In chem., R has been used for rhodium: more generally, Rh.
    • r In elect., R or r denotes resistance.
    • r In electrotechnics, r stands for radius.
    • n r An abbreviation of Rear-Admiral;
    • n r of Royal Arcanum;
    • n r of Royal Artillery (also R. Art.).
    • n r An abbreviation of Rifle Brigade.
    • n r An abbreviation of Red Cross
    • n r [lowercase] of right center.
    • n r In electrotherapy, an abbreviation of reaction of degeneration.
    • n r An abbreviation of Reformed Episcopal
    • n r of Right Excellent
    • n r [lowercase] of right eye.
    • n r An abbreviation of rapid fire;
    • n r in mineralogy, of reducing flame;
    • n r [capitalized] of République Française, French Republic;
    • n r [capitalized] of Rex Francorum, King of the Franks (French).
    • n r An abbreviation of right hand;
    • n r [capitalized] of Royal Highness.
    • n r An abbreviation of Rhode Island.
    • r An abbreviation of Receiving Office.
    • n r An abbreviation of Reformed Presbyterian
    • n r of Regius Professor
    • n r of the Latin Respublica, republic.
    • n r An abbreviation of railroad.
    • n r An abbreviation of Recording Secretary
    • n r of Revised Statutes
    • n r [lowercase] of right side
    • n r of Royal Society of London.
    • r An abbreviation of Rifle Volunteers.
    • r An abbreviation of railway. Also Rw.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: In 1969, Midnight Cowboy became the first and only X-rated production to win the Academy Award for Best Picture. (Its rating has since been changed to R.)
    • R the eighteenth letter in our alphabet, belonging to the class of liquids—the 'dog's letter' (littera canina), from the trilling or vibration of the tip of the tongue: as a medieval numeral=80;
    • ***

Quotations

  • Barbara Walters
    Barbara Walters
    “I was the kind nobody thought could make it. I had a funny Boston accent. I couldn't pronounce my R's. I wasn't a beauty.”
  • Robert H. Schuller
    Robert%20H.%20Schuller
    “Courage is spelled I-N-T-E-G-R-I-T-Y.”
  • Sherry Stringfield
    Sherry Stringfield
    “People don't want to know that as a woman, I made my own decision as a woman to leave, It has to be I was so burnt out or in love. [On her decision to quit E.R.]”
  • Source Unknown
    Source Unknown
    “Goals should be SMART: S = Specific M = Measurable A = Assignable (who does what) R = Realistic T = Time-Related”
  • Doug Horton
    Doug%20Horton
    “When all is lost, ask the I.R.S. -- they'll find something.”
  • J. P. Mcevoy
    J. P. Mcevoy
    “Life is just a dirty four-letter word: W-O-R-K.”

Usage

In literature:

MATTHEW R. WRIGHT, private, mustered in Aug. 14, 1862; killed at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862.
"War from the Inside" by Frederick L. (Frederick Lyman) Hitchcock
He wiggled and jerked and threshed around so that I told R. C. that it was not a bonefish, but R. C. contended it was.
"Tales of Fishes" by Zane Grey
A "Cecilia Society" was in existence at this time in Newport, R. I.
"Annals of Music in America" by Henry Charles Lahee
R. (J. R.) on cock and bull story, 414.
"Notes and Queries, Index of Volume 5, January-June, 1852" by Various
R. R. Hemphill (S. C.), always a staunch advocate of woman suffrage.
"The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume V"
P. Ramage, R. Storry, C. H. Wilkins, Mr. R. Gunton, and others, usually morning and evening.
"A History of Horncastle from the earliest period to the present time" by James Conway Walter
Hood, Texas, was wounded; T. R. R. Cobb, Georgia, and a brigadier from South Carolina were killed.
"A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital" by John Beauchamp Jones
R-Kt7 (ch) K-R sq 12.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 1" by Various
By R. T. GLAZEBROOK, M.A., F.R.S., and W. N. SHAW, M.A.
"Twentieth Century Inventions" by George Sutherland
Ye couldn't tell who ye'r feet belonged to till ye 'ad ye'r boots off.
"The Brassbounder" by David W. Bone
The Life of Christ, by Frederick W. Farrar, D. D., F. R. S., late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
"Bible Myths and their Parallels in other Religions" by T. W. Doane
B. Smith, 48 Ill. R. R. Swift, 27 Mass.
"In and Out of Rebel Prisons" by Lieut. A. [Alonzo] Cooper
Sergeant Thomas R. Cole, captured.
"The Bright Side of Prison Life" by Samuel A. Swiggett
After all, there was only one H. R., and both H. R. and Max Onthemaker knew it.
"H. R." by Edwin Lefevre
F. R. C. FRANK R. CANA.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Appendix" by Various
It was impossible for the P. R. or P. R. R. or whatever it had become, to have secured a staff on the Sunday.
"A Bed of Roses" by W. L. George
R.N.V.R., Author of "Sailing Ships and their Story," &c. &c.
"The Romance of War Inventions" by Thomas W. Corbin
J. G. Packer, and found refuge with the widow of R. Carlile.
"A Biographical Dictionary of Freethinkers of All Ages and Nations" by Joseph Mazzini Wheeler
By REGINALD R. SHARPE, D.C.L., Records Clerk in the Office of the Town Clerk of the City of London.
"What Gunpowder Plot Was" by Samuel Rawson Gardiner
Illustrated by THOMAS R. MACQUOID, R.I. With 2 maps.
"Evolution" by Frank B. Jevons
***

In poetry:

Oh ! tis the Lord of Ettrick Tow'r,
'Tis Reginald the young, and brave,
Of chivalry the brightest flow'r,
Of conqu'ring Love the lowliest slave.
"Reginald The Brave" by Laura Sophia Temple
"Ah! where is now that boasted pow'r,
Which kings and heroes once confess'd?
I try my arrows o'er and o'er,
But find they cannot reach the breast.
"Love" by Jane Bowdler
And what can be the pray'r of those,
Who learn'd with awe thy dreadful death?
It is that thou God's mercy found,
Before thou yielded up thy breath.
"Louis Riel" by Thomas Frederick Young
Fit cup art thou, O flow'r, to hold
Such drink surpassing and divine—
Wrought of the finest vestal gold,
And brimmed with sunlight's crystal wine.
"To a Maripose Lily" by Clark Ashton Smith
And dost thou say, Ask what thou wilt?
Lord, I would seize the golden hour;
I pray to be released from guilt,
And freed from sin and Satan's pow'r.
"Ask What I Shall Give Thee (II)" by John Newton
Thou dost yearn for lovelier flow'r
Than all blooms that all men cull:
Thou wilt find in its one hour,
In its one dell, the flow'r
That thou wilt cull.
"Quando Ver Venit Meum?" by Thomas MacDonagh

In news:

JOHNSTOWN — Michael R and Diane M Hilands of Westmont have announced the engagement of their daughter, Alison R.
The Hobbit, the first new movie since 2003 based on J.R.R.
R&R Regional Rundown: Toots and Anders To Go Acoustic.
Stay in shape and enjoy some R&R with these cool hotel services.
Wowza Media Systems LLC, the "Any Screen Done Right(R)" media server software company, today announced the release of Wowza Media Server(R) 3.5.
Way back in 1937, war-devastated British author J.R.R.
Navy Seaman Rebekah R Ray, daughter of Janet A and Thomas R Turner of James-town, Pa.
It has been nearly a decade since writer/director Peter Jackson last set foot on J.R.R.
Walking with House Speaker John Boehner, R-Ohio, right, Rep Paul Ryan, R-Wis.
Five acts that should be in the R&R Hall of Fame Who's not in.
ELKHART COUNTY — A 20-year-old Nappanee man was killed and three passengers were injured in an SUV and moped crash on C.R 50 east of C.R 35 Monday night.
BENTON — According to officials at dispatch for Elkhart County, a fatal vehicle crash occurred near the intersection of C.R 35 and C.R 50 in Benton Township at approximately 6:48 pm Monday.
All the talk from Sen Mitch McConnell (R-KY), Sen Jon Kyl (R-Ariz), and even John McCain about changing the 14th Amendment got me thinking about history.
The author of this recap has not read George R.R.
The vast collection of J.R.R.
***

In science:

Then, applying the definition of r to r(u · v) and r(u′ · v ′ ), we get r(u · v) = r(u) · r(v) = r(u′ ) · r(v ′ ) = r(u′ · v ′ ).
Using Tree Automata and Regular Expressions to Manipulate Hierarchically Structured Data
L(~r − ~r ′ ) =< V (~r)V (~r ′ ) >= A2 exp (−κ|~r − ~r ′ |)/|~r − ~r ′ | A is the constant dependent on the properties of the media.
Space-Time Evolution of the Oscillator, Rapidly moving in a random media
Conversely, since R/[R, S ] and S/[R, S ] centralize each other, there is a homomorphism m : (R/[R, S ]) ⊓A/[R,S ] (S/[R, S ]) → A/[R, S ] as in 3.3.
Linear extensions and nilpotence for Maltsev theories
K : (J 1(R × R, R), z0) → (J 1 (R × Rn , R), z ′ 0), a diffeomorphism germ Φ : (R2 , 0) → (R2 , 0) and a diffeomorphism germ Ψ : (R× (R×R), Π(z0 )) → (R × (R × R), Π(z ′ 0)) of the form Ψ(t, x, y ) = (t + α(x, y ), ψ(x, y )) (respectively, Ψ(t, x, y ) = (t, ψ(x, y ))) such that Π ◦ K = Ψ ◦ Π and K ◦ L = L′ ◦ Φ.
Generic singularities of implicit systems of first order differential equations on the plane
Since g is decreasing, we have |g (r)| ≤ |g (R′)| for r > R′ and δ ≥ R R 0 |g (r)|rd−1dr ≥ (R′ )dg (R′ ).
Random Surfaces
R,R]) χ[−R,R] (x) dµ(x), whose density is given by pR := µ([−R,R]) χ[−R,R] p.
Inequalities related to free entropy derived from random matrix approximation
Now, since max(r(S ), r(T )) ∈ M (ii) n , for any W ∈ T B n , W ≥ S and W ≥ T iff r(W ) > max(r(S ), r(T )) iff W >↑ (max(r(S ), r(T ))), so ↑ (max(r(S ), r(T ))) = S ∨ T .
Tamari lattices and noncrossing partitions in type B and beyond
L2 (Γp (σr, r)) to This will be possible if and only if zη is orthogonal K0 (Γp (σr, r)), where now K0 (Γp (σr, r)) coincides with the space of all KIDs on Γp(σr, r).
KIDs are non-generic
Then if we define s = inf {r ≥ 0 : ¯λ1 (q + r) ≤ a} one can use the Markov property and the coupling with a fragmentation (Π(F ) (q + r), r ≥ 0) started from Π(q), constructed with the PPP (PF (q + r), r ≥ 0) to see that s ≥ θ where θ is given by θ := inf {r ≥ 0 : ¯λ(F ) (t + r) ≤ a}.
Exchangeable Fragmentation-Coalescence processes and their equilibrium measures
This certainly verifies the Diamond Lemma conditions for the reductions r and r′ , r(X ) − r′ (X ) = r(X ) − r′ (X ) − r′ ◦ r(X ) + r ◦ r′ (X ) = (r(X ) − r′ ◦ r(X )) − (r′ (X ) − r ◦ r′ (X )) ∈ IX .
A Hopf algebra quantizing a necklace Lie algebra canonically associated to a quiver
R(µ) = 1/r and is an eigenvalue corresponding to a strictly positive eigenfunction; (iii) on (rd , ∞), r 7→ µ(r)/r is strictly increasing with limr→∞ µ(r)/r = 1; (iv) on (0, ∞), r 7→ µ(r) is convex.
Intermittency in a catalytic random medium
From (2.48) and (2.49), we get [µ(r)/r ]′ = [µ(r)R(µ(r))]′ = [µR(µ)]′ (r)µ′ (r) > 0, which proves the first part of assertion (iii).
Intermittency in a catalytic random medium
Moreover, it shows that r 7→ µ(r)/r is nondecreasing and, since the supremum is attained when r > rd , it, in fact, gives that r 7→ µ(r)/r is strictly increasing on (rd , ∞) (and tends to 1 as r → ∞).
Intermittency in a catalytic random medium
Moreover, the ideal (R :R x) satisfies the hypothesis of Proposition 1.1(4); hence for x, y ∈ K we have R[x] $ R[y ] if and only if rad(R :R y ) $ rad(R :R x).
Integral Domains whose Simple Overrings are Intersections of Localizations
We will make repeated use of the following affine k -groups: Hom (U, V ) : R → HomR-mod (U ⊗ R, V ⊗ R) where U and V are finite dimensional k -spaces, End (V ) = Hom (V , V ), Ga : R → (R, +), and Gm : R → R× (the units of R).
Automorphisms and twisted loop algebras of finite dimensional simple Lie superalgebras
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