Puddling

Definitions

  • Puddling furnace
    Puddling furnace
  • Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Puddling (Hydraul. Engin) Puddle. See Puddle n., 2.
    • Puddling (Metal) The art or process of converting cast iron into wrought iron or steel by subjecting it to intense heat and frequent stirring in a reverberatory furnace in the presence of oxidizing substances, by which it is freed from a portion of its carbon and other impurities.
    • Puddling (Hydraul. Engin) The process of working clay, loam, pulverized ore, etc., with water, to render it compact, or impervious to liquids; also, the process of rendering anything impervious to liquids by means of puddled material.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n puddling In hydraul, engin., the operation of working plastic clay behind piling in a cofferdam, the lining of a canal, or in other situation, to prevent the penetration of water; also, the clay or other material used in this operation.
    • n puddling The operation of transforming pig-iron into wrought-iron in a reverberatory furnace. The object of puddling is to remove the carbon in the pig-iron; and this is effected partly by the direct action of the oxygen of the air at the high temperature employed, and partly by the action of the cinder formed, or the oxidized compounds of iron added during the process. After the iron “comes to nature” in the furnace, it is made up into balls for convenient handling; these are “shingled” by hammering or squeezing, and passed between rolls, by which the metal is made to assume any desired form. There are two methods of puddling: the process as originally performed is called dry puddling; that which is now most generally followed is known as wet puddling, but is oftener called pig-boiling. In the older process only white or refined iron could be used; in the newer unrefined iron is employed, and this melts more perfectly and boils up more freely than is the case when refined iron is used, which remains in a more or less pasty condition during the process; hence the name pig-boiling. The puddling process was invented in England by Henry Cort, about 1784, and he was also the inventor of the method of finishing iron by passing it through grooved rolls—processes of immense importance as determining the long-maintained supremacy of England in the iron-manufacturing business. The invention of what is known as “Bessemer steel” has somewhat diminished, and is likely still further to diminish, the relative importance of the puddling process.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • Puddling the act of rendering impervious to water by means of clay: the process of converting cast into bar or wrought iron
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Quotations

  • Alexander Smith
    Alexander%20Smith
    “A man gazing on the stars is proverbially at the mercy of the puddles in the road.”

Etymology

Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
M. E. podel (prob. for plod-el)—Celt.; Ir. plodach, plod, a pool.

Usage

In literature:

Mr. Champneys studied those mother-of-pearl puddles gravely.
"The Purple Heights" by Marie Conway Oemler
At length he took them finickingly from the white slop-basin as though fishing them out of a puddle.
"The Price of Love" by Arnold Bennett
We couldn't puddle about there in the dark an' wet to no more advantage.
"A Diversity of Creatures" by Rudyard Kipling
Rain came in underneath the two front doors and made puddles that nobody wiped away.
"The Princess Priscilla's Fortnight" by Elizabeth von Arnim
The shower over, a wild resolution was unanimously taken to set out on foot for Pont de l'Arche, notwithstanding the mud and the puddles.
"The Cross of Berny" by Emile de Girardin
In the valleys of the interior white frosts are frequent, and thin ice forms on the wayside puddles.
"Stories of California" by Ella M. Sexton
And every shallow place in the ground held a chilly puddle.
"Vanguards of the Plains" by Margaret McCarter
I don't care a rap for my neighbor if he doesn't amuse me, and you live in a puddle of good works.
"The Testing of Diana Mallory" by Mrs. Humphry Ward
His knees dug into the puddle in the bottom of the pool as he felt the pressure on his haunches.
"Waysiders" by Seumas O'Kelly
These came in with the flood, and were left in the puddles between the broken rocks of the cove.
"Thrilling Stories Of The Ocean" by Marmaduke Park
There had been a light shower early in the morning, and here and there a little puddle reflected the blue sky and floating clouds.
"Dorothy Dainty's Gay Times" by Amy Brooks
The interior is entered by a low door, and I found it floored with two sticks of wood and a mud puddle.
"Overland through Asia; Pictures of Siberian, Chinese, and Tartar Life" by Thomas Wallace Knox
As for its Bray side, I'll try not to think about it; but if there are puddles, I guess it's well to know where, so as not to step in them.
"Mary Cary" by Kate Langley Bosher
Leaves a mass puddle.
"Matisse Picasso and Gertrude Stein" by Gertrude Stein
He looked down ruefully at the puddle on the floor.
"Dorothy Dale's Queer Holidays" by Margaret Penrose
The littler girl, half dozing along the accustomed way, slipped and slid into puddles.
"How To Write Special Feature Articles" by Willard Grosvenor Bleyer
But he had got up out of that puddle into which a harsh environment and wounded egotism had cast him.
"Burned Bridges" by Bertrand W. Sinclair
At dawn he found the man was a Rifleman long dead, his head in a puddle of blood, his stiff arms raised to the sky.
"Ladysmith" by H. W. Nevinson
Into the puddles of mud and water the three old miners sloshed, with shovels and picks in hand.
"The Furnace of Gold" by Philip Verrill Mighels
My first step ashore was into a puddle and a fog, and I began to cough before we reached London.
"The Letters of Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Volume II" by Elizabeth Barrett Browning
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In poetry:

The second speaker said
Fear water. Fear drenching rain
Drizzle, oceans, puddles, a damp
Day and the flush toilet.
"Paper Men To Air Hopes And Fears" by Robert Francis
The Referee stood in a puddle
With a fire-guard round his head,
And the band was playing —to make him laugh —
" Cheer up, you'll soon be dead."!
"One Over The Eight (Football Score!)" by T W Connor
No bird sings — but a grasshopper's wings
Snap in the meadow.
On the rim of the hill the cottonwoods spill
Stagnant puddles of shadow; and still —
The air is quick with a subtle thrill!
"Prarie Storm Rune" by John Gneisenau Neihardt
Like ter see the brooks and ponds dimpled up all over,
Like ter see the di'mon's shine on the bendin' clover,
Like ter see the happy ducks in the puddles sailin'
And the stuck-up rooster all draggled, wet and trailin'.
"A Rainy Day" by Joseph C Lincoln
And the man . . . poor . . . poor!
He turns his eyes around, like
when patting calls us upon our shoulder;
he turns his crazed maddened eyes,
and all of life's experiences become stagnant, like a puddle of guilt, in a daze.
"Black Messengers (Translation of Los Heraldos Negros)" by Cesar Vallejo
Thus did I by the water's brink
Another world beneath me think;
And while the lofty spacious skies
Reversèd there, abused mine eyes, I fancied other feet Came mine to touch or meet;
As by some puddle I did play
Another world within it lay.
"Shadows in the Water" by Thomas Traherne

In news:

Puddle of Mudd's Wes Scantlin Cleared of Public Intoxication Charge.
She was slammed into a puddle and hurt, but fortunately did not suffer serious injury.
A Somali woman at Kenya's border with Somalia makes her way through a large rain puddle on October 15, 2011 following heavy rains.
Perma-puddle at King and Spadina has a familiar splash to it.
Some tour dates will even include the band playing the entire project in one set, then a set of Puddle of Mudd originals.
Puddle Duck Canoe with plans from Gil Gilpatrick.
Puddle of Mudd were in Grand Rapids last night (Sunday) to play an awesome show at The Intersection.
Puddle of Mudd's Wes Scantlin Claims He Was Wrongfully Arrested in Airplane Incident.
Puddle of Mudd's Wes Scantlin Pleads Guilty to Cocaine Possession.
Puddle of Mudd Covers Led Zeppelin, Elton John, and More on New Album.
Puddle of Mudd's Wes Scantlin is breathing a little easier, as TMZ reports that the public intoxication charge against him for a JetBlue airline incident has been dropped.
Puddle of Mudd is looking to the past for its new record.
Platinum recording artist Puddle of Mudd released their first record in 2001, Come Clean, which went on to sale more than more 3 million copies.
Toot & Puddle : The Great Outdoors.
The Thurston County Chamber of Commerce Puddle Jump is set for Nov 3.
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In science:

Indeed, such condensates are expected to form puddles in the minima of the potential, with nonzero boson hopping amplitudes between the puddles.
Excitations of the One Dimensional Bose-Einstein Condensates in a Random Potential
The 2DEG forms compressible puddles of size s (the distance between the dopants and the 2DEG), with incompressible strips separating them.
Hamiltonian Theory of Disorder at 1/3
Note that the structure of the puddles can be complex, involving Wigner crystallites, etc, but since the extended states lie in the incompressible strip, the detailed structure of the puddles is irrelevant for the extended states, which makes the self-consistent Born approximation plausible.
Hamiltonian Theory of Disorder at 1/3
Since the incident light has a wavelength ≈ 800nm ≫ l the coherent respose to the light comes from regions much bigger than the puddles.
Hamiltonian Theory of Disorder at 1/3
Within this isolated FQH puddle an integer number of electrons must reside, and thus only an even number of quasiparticles is permitted (actually, a multiple of 4, since e∗ = e/4).
"Wormhole" geometry for entrapping topologically-protected qubits in non-Abelian quantum Hall states and probing them with voltage and noise measurements
It was proposed that the transport occurs through tunneling between consecutive “charge puddles”, which are the areas with non-zero charge induced by external the disorder potential.
Electronic properties of mesoscopic graphene structures: charge confinement and control of spin and charge transport
The ‘puddles’ of carriers were first observed in monolayer graphene via scanning SET microscopy and subsequently in STM measurements for monolayer and bilayer [20, 21] graphene.
The compressibility of graphene
The conventional wisdom is that these puddles are caused by external charged impurities (either located in the substrate, at the interface between the substrate and the graphene, or on top of the graphene) which have an electric field associated with them.
The compressibility of graphene
This idea has been used theoretically to predict the size and distribution of these puddles [22, 23, 24], and these studies agree qualitatively with the experimental measurements for both monolayer and bilayer graphenes.
The compressibility of graphene
They find that there is no obvious correlation between the corrugations and the puddle landscape and state that this is due to the nonlocal relation between the corrugation-induced scalar potential and the tensor field due to height fluctuations.
The compressibility of graphene
A phenomenological theory which accounts for puddles has been developed [27, 28] for incorporating the effects of disorder in calculations of M .
The compressibility of graphene
In conclusion, the effect of the puddles on M at low carrier density in bilayer graphene is an intricate quantitative question in which two main effects – the size of the layer asymmetry u, and the size of the density fluctuations – both play an important role.
The compressibility of graphene
They found variation on the order of tens of meV, and that the orientation of the asymmetry swapped between electron puddles and hole puddles.
The compressibility of graphene
This geometry induces a large degree of disorder from charged impurities and the dominant effects shown in these experiments are the broadening of features due to the puddle averaging described in Section 3.2.
The compressibility of graphene
Pinholes in the aperture plane vent the boiloff gas; a set of helium-cooled flares provide a bowl filled with a “puddle” of cold helium gas.
The Cosmic Microwave Background Spectrum
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