Pleiad

Definitions

  • Stars of the Pleiades
    Stars of the Pleiades
  • Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n Pleiad One of the Pleiades.
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Additional illustrations & photos:

Nebulosities of the Pleiades Nebulosities of the Pleiades

Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n Pleiad One of a close group of small stars in the constellation Taurus, very conspicuous on winter evenings, about twenty-four degrees north of the equator, and coming to the meridian at midnight in the middle of November. For some unknown reason, there were anciently said to be seven Pleiads, although only six were conspicuous then as now; hence the suggestion of a lost Pleiad. In mythology the Pleiads were said to be the daughters of Atlas and Pleione, and were named Alcyone, Merope, Celæno, Electra, Sterope or Asterope, Taygeta, and Maia. These names, with those of the parents, have been applied by modern astronomers since Ricciolo (a. d. 1665) to the principal stars of the group. Four of the brightest stars are at the corners of a trapezoid, with one in the base near the star at the northern angle, and one outside the trapezoid, like a handle to a dipper. Alcyone, the brightest of the group, is a greenish star, of magnitude 3.0, at the east end of the base of the trapezoid; it is h Tauri. Electra is a very white star, of magnitude 3.0, at the westernmost corner of the trapezoid, on the short side opposite the base. Taygeta is a yellowish star, of magnitude 4.4, at the northern corner on the base. Merope is a yellowish star, of magnitude 4.2, at the southernmost corner, not on the base. It is surrounded by a faint nebula, discovered by Tempel many years ago, and visible with a telescope of moderate dimensions. But photographs show that the cluster is also full of invisible wisps and filaments of nebulosity, which are for the most part attached to the larger stars. Maia is a yellowish star, of magnitude 4.0, on the base of the trapezoid, close to the northern angle, but not in it. Asterope is a double star, of magnitude 5.7, not very conspicuous, forming an equilateral triangle with Taygeta and Maia, and lying outside of the trapezoid. Celæeno is a star of magnitude 5.2. half-way between Electra and Taygeta, just a little outside the western slanting side of the trapezoid. Atlas is a yellowish star, of magnitude 3.8, the second or third brightest in the group, which lies out of the trapezoid, considerably to the east, as in the handle of the dipper. Pleione is a star of magnitude 5.1, a little north of Atlas.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Pleiad plī′ad one of the seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione, after death changed into stars
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Usage

In literature:

Nearly everybody can see the six stars of the Pleiades, and good eyesight can make out seven.
"Pluck on the Long Trail" by Edwin L. Sabin
No one pretends that ingratitude may, in any past abyss of time, have been a virtue, or that it may be such now in Arcturus or the Pleiades.
"On the Genesis of Species" by St. George Mivart
But there were seven Pleiads, till one disappeared.
"Gryll Grange" by Thomas Love Peacock
At a later period the number seven was arbitrarily brought into relationship with the Pleiades.
"The Evolution of the Dragon" by G. Elliot Smith
Isn't there some spot in the Pleiades which is the centre of the whole solar system?
"Dwell Deep" by Amy Le Feuvre
The Pleiades are considered to be at a distance of nearly 1500 billions of miles.
"The Beauties of Nature" by Sir John Lubbock
The beautiful cluster of the Pleiades or Seven Sisters has been regarded with hallowed veneration from time immemorial.
"The Astronomy of Milton's 'Paradise Lost'" by Thomas Orchard
One of the oldest of all eye tests is the Pleiades.
"Scouting For Girls, Official Handbook of the Girl Scouts" by Girl Scouts
Canst thou bind the sweet influences of the Pleiades, or loose the bands of Orion?
"The Silver Maple" by Marian Keith
We shall begin with a little star just west of the Pleiades, Sigma 412, also called 7 Tauri.
"Pleasures of the telescope" by Garrett Serviss
In winter Capella gets high up into the sky, and then there is to be seen below her a little cluster called the Pleiades.
"The Children's Book of Stars" by G.E. Mitton
It's the poem in the 'Pleiad.
"Cleo The Magnificent" by Louis Zangwill
The Pleiades could be well observed.
"The Contemporary Review, Volume 36, September 1879" by Various
Something of the kind is noticeable when we try to count the seven stars of the Pleiades.
"The Great Cattle Trail" by Edward S. Ellis
No more Pleiades at Hartford.
"The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 15, No. 91, May, 1865" by Various
It is "one of the lost Pleiads" of our present Prayer Book.
"The Church: Her Books and Her Sacraments" by E. E. Holmes
No wonder many children love the Pleiades best of all the constellations.
"Earth and Sky Every Child Should Know" by Julia Ellen Rogers
Who maketh the Bear, Orion, and the Pleiades, And the chambers of the south.
"The Bible Story" by Rev. Newton Marshall Hall
Still less was it so in the case of the Pleiade which followed him.
"An Outline of Russian Literature" by Maurice Baring
Defects of the Pleiade Tragedy.
"A Short History of French Literature" by George Saintsbury
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In poetry:

The silver moon is set;
The Pleiades are gone;
Half the long night is spent, and yet
I lie alone.
"The Silver Moon" by Sappho
Shine on, "Lone Star!" Who lifts his hand
To dash to earth so bright a gem,
A new "lost pleiad" from the band
That sparkles in night's diadem?
"Shine On" by Samuel Francis Smith
They're slow, but wake the hush… High in the sky's cool
darkness,
A princely diadem,
The icy Pleiades blaze diamond-like and sparkle,
Each one a gem.
"The Pleiades" by Ivan Bunin
Count thou their number on the beads of Heaven
Alas! the clustered Pleiads are but seven;
Nay, the nine sister Muses are too few,--
The Graces must add two.
"To The Eleven Ladies" by Oliver Wendell Holmes
Marie, Incarnate Virtue, Soule and Skin
Both pure, whom Death not Life convincd of Sin,
Had Daughters like seven Pleiades; but She
Was a prime Star of greatest Claritie.
"On His Lady Marie" by William Strode
"Six stories told! We must have seven,
A cluster like the Pleiades,
And lo! it happens, as with these,
That one is missing from our heaven.
Where is the Landlord? Bring him here;
Let the Lost Pleiad reappear."
"Tales Of A Wayside Inn : Part 2. Interlude VI. " by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

In news:

After peering at the crescent of Venus, aim the glasses toward the Pleiades.
Southern Pleiades, the Ghost of Jupiter, and dwarf spheroidal galaxy Leo I .
OWA Honors Platzer-Stocks With Pleiades Award.
Pleiades is in sight.
Venus and the Pleiades are shining in a celestial show.
Astrophotographer David A Harvey captured this view of sparkling Venus near the Pleiades star cluster in the skies above Tucson, Ariz.
Look westward at nightfall to see the Pleiades star cluster above tonight's smiling lunar crescent.
The waxing gibbous moon shines close to the Pleiades star cluster tonight.
Southern Pleiades , the Ghost of Jupiter, and dwarf spheroidal galaxy Leo I.
Don't miss a stunning sight around 9 pm local daylight time April 26 when a crescent Moon joins Mercury and the Pleiades in the deepening twilight.
Observe the Moon, Mercury, and the Pleiades .
The Pleiades -a nearby cluster easily visible in the western sky on a winter evening-is the site of an extraordinary three-way celestial collision, says astrophysicist Richard White, formerly of Smith College in Massachusetts.
Southern Pleiades, the Ghost of Jupiter, and dwarf spheroidal galaxy Leo I.
Canst thou bind the chains of the Pleiades or loose the cords of Orion.
Look eastward about three hours after sunset Thursday night to see a fine astronomical treat: Jupiter rising in close proximity to the moon, surrounded by two of the closest star clusters in the sky, the Pleiades and the Hyades.
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In science:

Finally, the science telemetry system is a direct reuse from the PLEIADES (CNES) spacecraft.
Summary of the DUNE Mission Concept
The B − V colours and v sin i data for Pleiades stars were taken from Queloz et al. (1998).
Methods for exomoon characterisation: combining transit photometry and the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect
Open circles: individual stars of the Pleiades.
Methods for exomoon characterisation: combining transit photometry and the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect
A note on the Pleiades distance derived from Hipparcos Distances of open clusters were published using Hipparcos parallaxes.
From Hipparcos to Gaia
Gaia will close this debate on the distance of the Pleiades.
From Hipparcos to Gaia
The first young brown dwarfs were identified in the Pleiades star cluster (Rebolo et al. 1995), namely Teide 1 and Calar 3, which both have retained their initial Lithium abundance (Rebolo et al., 1996).
Theory of low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and extra-solar giant planets
PIERRE MAXTED: You suggested that two of the brown dwarfs seen in the Pleiades are binary stars since they sit so far above the isochrones in the HR diagram.
Theory of low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and extra-solar giant planets
In recent times the zeropoint calibration has also been referenced to the Pleiades, with distance derived from a fit of the Pleiades ZAMS to local parallax stars (van Leuuwen 1983), on the grounds that the Pleiades is more similar in age and metallicity to the Cepheid-containing clusters.
The Distances of the Magellanic Clouds
McClintock et al. (1995) concluded that the X-ray luminosity of coronally active stars was too low to explain BH SXT emission (Lx <1030 erg s-1 ), referring to a comparison between the X-ray luminosity of CVs and unevolved K dwarfs in the Pleiades made by Eracleous et al.(1991).
Coronal X-Ray Emission from the Stellar Companions to Transiently Accreting Black Holes
Fig. 6a shows that most of the strongest X-ray emitters are located above the Pleiades upper envelopes to the Li I.
X-ray emission from Lindroos binary systems
We have also plotted the upper envelopes to the Li I EW of the Pleiades (dotted line) and IC 2602 (dashed line) stars as well as the primordial Li abundance (solid line). b Li I abundances versus the log of the effective temperature.
X-ray emission from Lindroos binary systems
The Pleiades and IC 2602 data are represented by open circles and starred symbols, respectively. A general trend is seen: most of the late-type stars under study have more Lithium I than ZAMS cluster stars, ie. are younger, and the larger the X-ray luminosity the more Lithium abundance at any given spectral type.
X-ray emission from Lindroos binary systems
Two more stars show non-detections in X-rays although they lie very close to the upper envelope of the Pleiades: HD 27638 and HD 40494.
X-ray emission from Lindroos binary systems
As in the left panel of the figure, we have found strong X-ray emitters above the Pleiades and IC 2602 data.
X-ray emission from Lindroos binary systems
Although we have no reliable measurements of their ages, most of the Lindroos secondaries seem to be younger than 125 Myr (when compared to the Pleiades) with three of them showing ages lower than 35 Myr (IC 2602 cluster).
X-ray emission from Lindroos binary systems
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