Fungi

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n Fungi the taxonomic kingdom including yeast, molds, smuts, mushrooms, and toadstools; distinct from the green plants
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Mussels can thrive in polluted water because of an inborn ability to purify bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
    • n. pl Fungi fŭn"jī (Biol) A group of thallophytic plant-like organisms of low organization, destitute of chlorophyll, in which reproduction is mainly accomplished by means of asexual spores, which are produced in a great variety of ways, though sexual reproduction is known to occur in certain Phycomycetes, or so-called algal fungi. They include the molds, mildews, rusts, smuts, mushrooms, toadstools, puff balls, and the allies of each. In the two-kingdom classification system they were classed with the plants, but in the modern five-kingdom classification, they are not classed as plants, but are classed in their own separate kingdom fungi, which includes the phyla Zygomycotaincluding simple fungi such as bread molds), Ascomycotaincluding the yeasts), Basidiomycotaincluding the mushrooms, smuts, and rusts), and Deuteromycotathe fungi imperfecti). Some of the forms, such as the yeasts, appear as single-celled microorganisms, but all of the fungi are are eukaryotic, thus distinguishing them from the prokaryotic microorganisms of the kingdon Monera.☞ The Fungi appear to have originated by degeneration from various algæ, losing their chlorophyll on assuming a parasitic or saprophytic life. In an earlier classification they were divided into the subclasses Phycomycetes, the lower or algal fungi; the Mesomycetes, or intermediate fungi; and the Mycomycetes, or the higher fungi; by others into the Phycomycetes; the Ascomycetes, or sac-spore fungi; and the Basidiomycetes, or basidial-spore fungi.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n fungi One of the lowest of the great groups of cellular cryptogams. The Fungi are chiefly distinguished by the absence of chlorophyl, and therefore by the lack of power to assimilate inorganic substances, being thus dependent for their food upon living or dead organic matter obtained from other plants or from animals. Consequently, also, they do not inhale carbonic acid and give off oxygen as chlorophyllous plants do in assimilation, but do inhale oxygen and give off carbonic acid as other plants do in respiration. The vegetative system consists of filiform cells, called hyphæ and the hyphæ of a fungus taken collectively are called the mycelium. The hyphæ are usually septate and branched; in some fungi, as Peronosporeæ and their allies, there are no septa except those which divide off the propagative cells or organs. Exceptions to the hyphal plan of structure occur in several cases. In the yeast-fungi and yeast-like stages of certain other fungi the plant consists of a succession of ellipsoid cells formed by budding; in the Chytridieæ certain species have no mycelium, but consist of a spherical or ovoid cell; in the bacteria the prevailing form is that of very minute spheres or rods, which multiply by fission; in. the vegetative stage of the Myxomycetes there is only a mass of protoplasm. The mycelium is said to be filamentous when the hyphæ are separate, or at most but loosely interwoven, as in the common molds; membranous when the hyphæ are so interwoven as to form a layer; fibrous when the hyphæ form branching strands, the latter being often of considerable size and indurated. In some groups. as the mushrooms, the interwoven hyphæ form a compound fungus-body of definite and regular shape. Fungi are saprophytic or parasitic, according as that from which they obtain their food is a dead organic substance or a living organism. Some parasitic species are facultative saprophytes, and some saprophytic species are facultative parasites. Among the saprophytic fungi are the common domestic molds and mildews, the “dry-rot” fungi, the greater number of ascomycetous and basidiomycetons fungi, which grow on dead wood, leaves, etc., or organic matter in the soil, also many Hyphomycetes, and the Myxomycetes. Among the parasitic fungi are the Uredineæ or rusts and Ustilagineæ or smuts, which grow upon wild and cultivated plants, also most Peronosporeæ, as represented by the potato-rot and American grape-vine mildew. Among the Ascomycetes, the Erysipheæ (powdery mildews) are all parasitic, as are also many other Pyrenomycetes and a few Discomycetes. Many parasitic species, especially the rusts, smuts, and mildews, cause great destruction to cultivated crops. The lichens are now considered by many botanists to consist of fungi parasitic upon algæ (the gonidia). (See lichen.) A few fungi grow upon living animals and man. Several species of Aspergillus cause a disease (otomycosis) of the human ear. Other fungi produce the skin-diseases favus and ringworm. Bacteria are believed to cause most or all of the fevers and contagious diseases of man and the lower animals. Species of Saprolegnia cause epidemics among fishes, especially the salmon. The principal parasites upon insects belong to the Entomophthoreæ and the genus Cordyceps. (See cut under Cordyceps.) Silkworms are attacked by a species of Botrytis, and bacteria cause epidemics among silkworms and other insects. Both sexual and asexual reproduction occur in fungi; the latter is present in all, and in many is the only kind that has been observed. The asexual spores (conidia) are most frequently produced upon the tips of uninclosed hyphæ, as in Hyphomycetes, or on short hyphæ produced in conceptacles, but sometimes by free cell-formation, as in Mucor. The sexual organs are of three types. In the conjugating fungi, Mucor and its allies, reproduction takes place by the union of two similar cells to form a zygospore. In Peronospora and its allies oogonia and antheridia are formed; the antheridium comes in direct contact with the oogonium, and a transfer of the protoplasm into the oosphere takes place. In the Ascomycetes, so far as known, a carpogonium takes the place of the oogonium, and the product of fertilization is usually a perithecium or apothecium containing asci and spores. (See Eurotium.) Modern classifications of fungi are of two kinds. That proposed by F. Cohn in 1872 classes together in primary groups fungi and algæ having similar modes of reproduction, employing the peculiar fungal characters in distinguishing the secondary groups; but the usual method recognizes fungi as wholly distinct from algæ, separated by physiological and morphological characters, in this respect agreeing with the old method. The artificial system formerly in use and still retained in some English books divides the fungi into the orders Ascomycetes, Physomycetes, Hyphomycetes, Coniomycetes, Gasteromycetes, and Hymenomycetes. De Bary in 1861 made four divisions: Phycomycetes, Hypodermiæ, Basidiomycetes, and Ascomycetes. Goebel (1882) does not include Myxomycetes and Schizomycetes with Fungi proper; the latter he divides into Chytridiaceæ. Ustilagineæ, Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes, Uredineæ, and Basidiomycetes. The Fungi Imperfecti of modern authors include a large number of forms, of which some are known, and most are suspected, to be the asexual stages of Ascomycetes. The principal groups of Fungi Imperfecti are the Sphæropsideæ; Melanconieæ, and Hyphomycetes. The number of known species of fungi is estimated at about 30,000, Most of the edible fungi are found among the mushrooms and pufiballs; but the truffle and morel are ascomycetous. Most of the species recognized as poisonous are mushrooms; but the ergot-fungus is ascomycetous. Some smuts are poisonous to cattle. Some fungi produce poisonous substances, as alcohol, by fermentation. Also called Fungales. See cuts under ascus, basidium, Clavaria, ergot, exoperidium, Fusicladium, and Puccinia.
    • fungi Recent investigations have added much to the knowledge of the life-histories and relationships of this large group of plants. The term, as commonly used to include the slime-molds and bacteria as well as the fungi proper, does not signify a natural group. The present tendency is to restrict its use to the Eumycetes (true fungi). The cytological studies of Harper and others confirm the opinion that the rusts (Uredinales) are most closely related to the Basidiomycetes, while the researches of Thaxter have shown the existence of what appears to be a new order, the Myxobacteriales, showing characters of both Myxomycetes and bacteria. Various recent systematic arrangements of the fungi have been proposed, notably those of Brefeld, Schröter, Saccardo, and Bugler and Prantl. These classifications differ chiefly in the terminology used, the relative rank given to different groups, and the position assigned to certain orders of more or less doubtful relationship. The sporological system of Saccardo, used in his “Sylloge Fungorum” as a basis for the division of the larger groups of the Pyrenomycetes, Discomycetes, and Fungi Imperfecti, is very convenient but artificial. The following arrangement is based upon that given in Engler's “Syllabus.” The termination of the ordinal names is that at present adopted and has been used by Underwood. The lichens have been added to the classes of fungi to which they belong. Class I. Myxomycetes: orders Acrasiales, Plasmodiophorales, Myxogastrales, Myxobacteriales. Class II. Schizomycetes: orders Eubacteriales, Thiobacteriales. Eumycetes (true fungi): Class III. Archimycetes: order Chytridiales. Class IV. Zygomycetes: orders Mucorales. Entomophthorales. Class V. Oömycetes: orders Saprolegniales, Peronosporales. Class VI. Ascomycetes: orders Protonnycetales, Saccharomycetales, Exoascales, Aspergillales, Perisporiales, Hypacreales, Dothideales, Sphæriales. Laboulbeniales, Tuberales, Hysteriales, Phacdiales, Pezizales, Helvellales. Subclass Ascolichenes: orders Parmeliales, Lecideales, Graphidales, Caliciales, Verrucariales. Fungi Imperfecti: orders Sphæropsidales, Melanconiales, Moniliales. Class VII. Basidiomycetes: subclass Hemibasidii — order Ustilayinales; subclass Protobasidii — orders Uredinales, Auriculariales, Tremellales, Dacryomycetales, Exobasidiales, Agaricales, Phallales, Hymenogastrales, Lycoperdales, Nidulariales, Sclerodermatales. Subclass Hymenolichenes.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • pl Fungi (fun′jī) or Funguses (fung′gus-ez)
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Quotations

  • Aldous Huxley
    Aldous%20Huxley
    “Which is better: to have fun with fungi or to have Idiocy with ideology, to have wars because of words, to have tomorrow's misdeeds out of yesterday's miscreeds?”

Etymology

Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. fungus, a mushroom—Gr. sphonggos, sponggos, a sponge.

Usage

In literature:

They are of two classes; the insect foes, and diseases caused by Fungi.
"Roses and Rose Growing" by Rose Georgina Kingsley
Up to 1865 Naegeli believed in the spontaneous origin of many fungi, and thought that it could be demonstrated.
"A Mechanico-Physiological Theory of Organic Evolution" by Carl Von Nägeli
But we find a "classification" of fungi.
"The Old English Herbals" by Eleanour Sinclair Rohde
Many of these woody fungi persist for several years, and a new layer of pores is superposed on the previous season's growth.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Slice 3" by Various
The fungi like flowers for beauty, and the flowers like nothing you have ever seen!
"The Land of Lost Toys" by Juliana Horatia Ewing
It serves to prevent loss of water, and also affords protection against animals and fungi.
"The New Gresham Encyclopedia. Vol. 1 Part 3" by Various
Jack, old fellow, try some of these fungi.
"The Star-Gazers" by George Manville Fenn
Bacteria, fungi, and a few fish produce light continuously and independently of stimulation.
"The Nature of Animal Light" by E. Newton Harvey
And, after all, it was something of a change from roots and fungi.
"The Secret Trails" by Charles G. D. Roberts
Pale, sickly fungi had sprung up in clusters at the corners of the damp hearthstone.
"John Marchmont's Legacy, Volumes I-III" by Mary E. Braddon
The plant will not grow in any other atmosphere but one surcharged with all kinds of fungi.
"Ginseng and Other Medicinal Plants" by A. R. (Arthur Robert) Harding
It is the work of fungi; but these fungi are injurious because they find conditions congenial to their rapid growth.
"The Practical Garden-Book" by C. E. Hunn
Is it no hint that wherever decaying organic matter is found, there do we find fungi?
"Epidemics Examined and Explained: or, Living Germs Proved by Analogy to be a Source of Disease" by John Grove
Muscarine, C5H15NO3, is an exceedingly poisonous substance found in many fungi.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 3, Slice 6" by Various
DISEASES OF FIELD AND GARDEN CROPS, chiefly such as are caused by Fungi.
"Essays Upon Some Controverted Questions" by Thomas H. Huxley
At least one function of resin is to protect the tree from attacks of fungi.
"Wood and Forest" by William Noyes
An outcropping of rock there made a steep descent to the river, from which yellow shelf-fungi stretched out.
"The Mad Planet" by Murray Leinster
It is one of the so-called Slime-fungi or Myxogastres.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 10, Slice 3" by Various
Damp, unventilated situations are most favourable to the development of dry-rot Fungi.
"The New Gresham Encyclopedia" by Various
ENTOMOPHTHORINEAE, a curious family of Fungi, group Zygomycetes, all parasites on insects.
"The New Gresham Encyclopedia" by Various
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In poetry:

Babels of blocks to the high heavens towering
Flames of futility swirling below;
Poisonous fungi in brick and stone flowering,
Lanterns that shudder and death-lights that glow.
"The Cats" by Howard Phillips Lovecraft
I see them come; fantastic, fair;
Chill, mushroom-colored: sky and earth
Grow ghostly with their floating hair
And trailing limbs, that have their birth
In wetness--fungi of the air.
"Rain In The Woods" by Madison Julius Cawein
The moonlight lends her grace, but have a care:
Behind her waits the fairy Melusine.
The sun those beams refract died years ago.
The moat has a romantic air
But it is choked with nettles and obscene
And phallic fungi rot there as they grow.
"Beware of Ruins" by A D Hope

In news:

The University Center of San Miguel will be offering education credits in the study of fungi in conjunction with events at the festival.
Mycorrhizal fungi is an all-natural, beneficial fungus in the soil.
What's the benefit of using mycorrhizal fungi in your garden.
Mushroom Farmer is Known for Alaska Grown Fungi .
It's not entirely clear why some fungi do this, but it might assist their survival in contaminated soils.
Author and 21st century forager Langdon Cook on food, foraging and fungi renegades.
Molds are a category in the fungi family, but the words are often used interchangeably.
The most common indoor fungi are Cladosporium, Alternaria, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Penicillium (sound familiar?
Land plants and fungi may have arisen far earlier than previously thought, according to a study published today in the journal Science.
Oak Leaf to Fungi Click to enlarge.
Fungi in the Yard Click to enlarge.
(Learn about other fungi that invade brains.).
The onset of cool, moist weather often brings out stinkhorn fungi in our growing area.
This fungus is particularly hard to treat because it invades deeper layers of the skin than most other fungi that attack mammals.
WASHINGTON — They live on your skin, up your nose, in your gut — enough bacteria, fungi and other microbes that collected together could weigh, amazingly, a few pounds.
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In science:

For example, a special type of fungi might constitute X points, while the tree species around which the fungi grow might be viewed as the Y points.
Relative Density of the Random $r$-Factor Proximity Catch Digraph for Testing Spatial Patterns of Segregation and Association
Recombination occurs not only during gamete formation in sexually reproducing multicellular organisms but in unicellular organisms such as bacteria and fungi as well .
Nonlinear deterministic equations in biological evolution
Small intestine microflora in SIBO (without psoriasis) and in psoriasis. In norm total bacterial count of duodenum and upper parts of small intestine does not exceed 104-105 CFU/ml. There are lactobacillus, bifidobacteria, bacteroides, enterococci, streptococci, yeast-like fungi, etc.
Model of pathogenesis of psoriasis. Part 1. Systemic psoriatic process
Abstract— Cooperation and competition among stand-alone swarm agents increase collective fitness of the whole system. A principally new kind of collective systems is demonstrated by some bacteria and fungi, when they build symbiotic organisms.
Collective Energy Foraging of Robot Swarms and Robot Organisms
For example, fungi dictyostelium discoideum can aggregate into a multi-cellular symbiotic organism and perform such activities that cannot be fulfilled alone or in a swarm-like way .
Collective Energy Foraging of Robot Swarms and Robot Organisms
It dawned on the grasshopper that although the individual ants were just boring little morons idiotically following rules, the nest as a whole was managing to find the closest leaves, bring them back along optimal routes, and feed them to its plantations of fungi.
Interplay between Network Topology and Dynamics in Neural Systems
The only survivors among the eukaryotes will be the fungi and worms that can still reproduce at 50◦ C (Girguis and Lee 2006).
Astrophysics in 2006
For example, a special type of fungi might constitute X points, while the tree species around which the fungi grow might be viewed as the Y points.
A New Family of Random Graphs for Testing Spatial Segregation
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