D-layer

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n D-layer the lowest region of the ionosphere (35 to 50 miles up) that reflects low-frequency radio waves
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Usage

In literature:

Daddy declares if they were to scrape Jake they'd find at least five layers of shirts.
"The Forester's Daughter" by Hamlin Garland
This flyer coils the twisted material upon a wooden tube (D) in close-wound spirals and in successive layers.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 7, Slice 5" by Various
Afterwards the other layers, 2, 3, 4, may be deposited in succession, so that the bank B C D is formed.
"A Manual of Elementary Geology" by Charles Lyell
The D lines are dark in the sun because the photosphere is much hotter than the reversing layer.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 13, Slice 2" by Various
By stage D the plates of mesoblast have ceased to be quite isolated, and are connected with the lower layer cells of the general blastoderm.
"The Works of Francis Maitland Balfour, Volume 1" by Francis Maitland Balfour
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In news:

Takashi Miike's tale of an ancient feudal system effectively uses layered flashbacks and 3-D. 35 for $90 worth of Digital Photo Printing & Framing from FrameShopWorld.com.
I'll select our foreground layer , and create a duplicate layer by pressing control d or command d on the keyboard.
I was glad I'd worn three layers and gloves.
Jonathan Racek modeled Flounce with a 3-D program, cut it by a computerized router, then laminated the 52 layers of plywood by hand.
Pricing is determined by quantity, card size and number of 3-D layers involved.
Air Force approved D-Zolve™ 15-33 LO Paint Stripper available from Solvent Kleene, Inc is designed to safely remove several layers of aircraft paint .
They are printing their designs with a printer that builds 3-D plastic models layer by layer from the bottom up.
A 3-D printer , which has nothing to do with paper printers , creates an object by stacking one layer of material — typically plastic or metal — on top of another, much the same way a pastry chef makes baklava with sheets of phyllo dough.
Air Force approved D-Zolve™ 15-33 LO Paint Stripper available from Solvent Kleene, Inc is designed to safely remove several layers of aircraft paint.
Since you're going to peel off the first layer to get to the gooey, sticky part of the marshmallow, I'd say put it right in direct heat.
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In science:

Then, let P i`1 “ dP i , where d is the derivation endomap on open processes typed in any extension Ξ; pΓ, ∆q of Ξ; Γ, which unfolds one layer of recursive definitions.
Innocent strategies as presheaves and interactive equivalences for CCS (expanded version)
D/2, which is outside the sidewall boundary layer.
Breakdown of the large-scale wind in \Gamma=1/2 rotating Rayleigh-B\'enard flow
From Ying et al. (2009).182 Note that the dislocation lines in (d) are the results of superposition over many layers.
Evaluation of Spin-Triplet Superconductivity in Sr2RuO4
So that, we identify the deep retina layers behavior to a non-subtractive dithered A/D converter.
Streaming an image through the eye: The retina seen as a dithered scalable image coder
We especially emphasized the deep retina layers analogy with A/D converters.
Streaming an image through the eye: The retina seen as a dithered scalable image coder
Snapshots of relevant stages in the course of diffusion of O starting above the first graphene layer through the second graphene layer and eventually ending at the surface of Al(111) surface are also indicated in Fig. 4 (d).
Graphene coatings: An efficient protection from oxidation
Effect of Raleigh fading channel on BER performance of WIMAX Physical layer: From figure d, e & f, we can see that, Raleigh fading channel has higher BER than AWGN and Rician fading channel.
Effect of AWGN & Fading (Raleigh & Rician) channels on BER performance of a WiMAX communication System
V = Xi=a,b Z d r ψ† i (r) V (r) ψi (r) , which includes the effects of the band offset as well as those of possible impurities and defects at the interface, such as a thin insulating layer, via the single-particle potential V (r).
Coherent exciton transport in semiconductors
Physical Review B 83, 235428 (2011). 76. Lindsay, L. & Broido, D.A. Enhanced thermal conductivity and isotope effect in single-layer hexagonal boron nitride.
Nanoscale Heat Transfer: from Computation to Experiment
Cahill, D.G. Analysis of heat flow in layered structures for timedomain thermoreflectance. Review of Scientific Instruments 75, 5119-5122 (2004). 212.
Nanoscale Heat Transfer: from Computation to Experiment
Cahill, D.G. & Watanabe, F. Thermal conductivity of isotopically pure and Ge-doped Si epitaxial layers from 300 to 550 K. Physical Review B 70 (2004). 224.
Nanoscale Heat Transfer: from Computation to Experiment
Contact angle images of (c) neat paper substrate, (d) P3HT deposited on paper and (e) multi-layer GO film deposited on the P3HT coated paper.
Flexible transistors exploiting P3HT on paper substrates and graphene oxide films as gate dielectrics: proof of concept
Plots of Ic (φ0 )/Ic (0) at T /Tc = 0.5 and γ ≪ 1 with Umklapp for c-axis twist junctions between layered superconductors with FS2 and J (k, k′ ) = J ϕ(k)ϕ(k′ ), Jη (kη , kη ) = Jη ϕ2 (kη ), where ϕ(k) = | cos(kx a) − cos(ky a)|, kU = k and kL = k′ , Jη = 25, 50, 200 meV and s-, d-, and extended-s-wave OP symmetry.
Theory of Coherent $c$-Axis Josephson Tunneling between Layered Superconductors
Typically, K = κ/d, where κ is the bending modulus of a single membrane and d is the average layer spacing, and B is function of the intermembrane interactions .
Structure Factor of a Lamellar Smectic Phase with Inclusions
C0 = βtilt/(πκd) at the position of the inclusion (r⊥ = 0, z = d/2) without changing the layer spacing (κ = K d is the rigidity of an isolated membrane).
Structure Factor of a Lamellar Smectic Phase with Inclusions
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