Circum-

Definitions

  • Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Circum- A Latin preposition, used as a prefix in many English words, and signifying around or about.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n circum- A prefix of Latin origin, meaning ‘round about,’ ‘in a circle,’ ‘on all sides’: frequent in compounds taken from the Latin, or formed in English or other modern tongues. Many such compounds are merely occasional. Only the principal ones are entered in this dictionary.
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
Akin to circle, circus,

Usage

In literature:

Armeniam nationesque circum socias habebat, says Aur.
"The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Volume 2" by Edward Gibbon
Aureus ipse; sed in foliis, quae plurima circum Funduntur, violae sublucet purpura nigrae.
"The Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction, Vol. 12, Issue 332, September 20, 1828" by Various
Haec circum sedes late contexta locavit, Vestibulum ut molli velatum fronde vireret.
"The Carmina of Caius Valerius Catullus" by Caius Valerius Catullus
Cassini assures us that the same proportion is observed in the circum-Saturnal planets.
"The World's Greatest Books - Volume 15 - Science" by Various
Ipse mihi custos incorruptissimus omnis circum doctores aderat.
"The Student's Companion to Latin Authors" by George Middleton
Is deinceps alium sibi proximum impellit, qui in orbem circum actus, atque ad inanem locum rediens, ui ferrum fecum rapit & trahit.
"On the magnet, magnetick bodies also, and on the great magnet the earth" by William Gilbert of Colchester
Ter conatus ibi collo dare bracchia circum, Ter frustra comprensa manus effugit imago.
"The Bridling of Pegasus" by Alfred Austin
Illi indignantes magno cum murmure montis Circum claustra fremunt.
"Shelburne Essays, Third Series" by Paul Elmer More
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In science:

In the circum-nuclear dusty regions around AGNs PAH emission is not observed.
High-Redshift Galaxies: The Far-Infrared and Sub-Millimeter View
X-ray heating of the circum-nuclear gas and dust is an important source of luminosity in the far-IR if a luminous AGN is present (Maloney, Hollenbach, & Tielens 1996).
The Bolocam 1.1 mm Lockman Hole Galaxy Survey: SHARC II 350 micron Photometry and Implications for Spectral Models, Dust Temperatures, and Redshift Estimation
We highlight the importance of the circum-nuclear disc in determining the appearance of the emission line gas and the morphology of the jet.
The Nuclear Outflow in NGC 2110
The current status of spin physics experiments, based on talks presented at the Third Circum-Pan-Pacific Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics held in Beijing, 2001, is summarized in this article.
Status of Spin Physics - Experimental Summary
There has been an enormous progress in various areas of spin physics experiments since the last Circum-Pan-Pacific Spin Symposium in 1999.
Status of Spin Physics - Experimental Summary
Alternatively, characterisic isotopic samples of the nuclosynthesis source, as conserved in circum-source dust grains, allow significant nucleosynthesis inferences, in particular on AGB stars, but more recently even on supernovae and novae.
Gamma-Ray Line Astronomy
For inclination angles ∼0◦ , the lines of sight to the WCR are then optically thin, permitting investigation of the emission from the windcollision region in the absence of strong free-free absorption from the circum-binary stellar wind envelope.
X-ray and radio emission from colliding stellar winds
Such variability might be due to fluctuations in the density of the circum-burst medium, or due to continued injection of relativistic material into the fireball (refreshed shock).
Prompt optical observations of GRB050319 with the Swift UVOT
The radiation from afterglows of gamma-ray bursts is generated in the collisionless plasma shock interface between a relativistic outflow and a quiescent circum-burst medium.
Gamma-Ray Burst Synthetic Spectra from Collisionless Shock PIC Simulations
The patterns also serve as a magnifier to show the binary motion in the center of the circum stellar envelope.
Envelope density pattern around wide binary AGB stars: a dynamical model
For type II AGNs, the central engine and BLRs are not viewed directly due to obscuration by the circum-nuclear torus.
Supermassive Black Hole Masses in Type II Active Galactic Nuclei with Polarimetric Broad Emission Lines
Finally, we note that an alternative approach within grid-based methods is to adopt a “cubed-sphere” grid, which circum vents the problems at the poles at the price of dealing with a non-orthogonal grid (e.g., Adcroft et al. 2004; Showman et al. 2009).
Atmospheric circulation of tidally locked exoplanets: a suite of benchmark tests for dynamical solvers
It assumes a release of an enormous amount of energy from the progenitor in a small region within a short time that powers a high-temperature relativistically expanding ejecta (fireball) beamed into a jet that interacts with a circum-burst medium.
Statistical Analysis of the Observable Data of Gamma-Ray Bursts
The first fireball shock model based on external and internal shocks in the circum-burst and ejected material was introduced by Rees & M´esz´aros (1992) and by Rees & M´esz´aros (1994), respectively.
Statistical Analysis of the Observable Data of Gamma-Ray Bursts
Note that the circumflex employed here indicates that the quantity is an estimate of the classical variable and not that it is a quantum operator.
State determination in continuous measurement
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