Cilia

Definitions

  • Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Cilia (Bot) Hairlike processes, commonly marginal and forming a fringe like the eyelash.
    • Cilia (Biol) Small, generally microscopic, vibrating appendages lining certain organs, as the air passages of the higher animals, and in the lower animals often covering also the whole or a part of the exterior. They are also found on some vegetable organisms. In the Infusoria, and many larval forms, they are locomotive organs.
    • Cilia (Zoöl) Small, vibratory, swimming organs, somewhat resembling true cilia, as those of Ctenophora.
    • Cilia (Anat) The eyelashes.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n cilia Plural of cilium.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n.pl Cilia sil′i-a hair-like lashes borne by cells
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. cilium, eyelid
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. cilium, pl. cilia, eyelids, eyelashes.

Usage

In literature:

So Cilia Pioschek from the Warthe district came to the Schliebens.
"The Son of His Mother" by Clara Viebig
The cilia fluttered about its spherical body.
"Where the World is Quiet" by Henry Kuttner
In the centre of the praeoral lobe is a tuft of cilia.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 2" by Various
Having no longer any use for the little cilia, which enabled it to swim through the water, it now loses them.
"Nature's Miracles, Volume 1" by Elisha Gray
At each end of the oval there is a groove lined by specially long vibratile cilia.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 2" by Various
What are the cilia and what use do they probably serve?
"A Treatise on Physiology and Hygiene" by Joseph Chrisman Hutchison
They have cilia or flagella (projections larger than cilia).
"A Guide for the Study of Animals" by Worrallo Whitney
Symmetrically placed flagella may have a symmetrical reciprocating motion like that of cilia.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 10, Slice 4" by Various
Cecilia was her proper name, but she was invariably called Cilia for short.
"Dry Fish and Wet" by Anthon Bernhard Elias Nilsen
Their inner surface is amoeboid and in certain conditions bears one or more vibratile cilia or protoplasmic lashes.
"Freshwater Sponges, Hydroids & Polyzoa" by Nelson Annandale
Then the stem gracefully elongates again, and the cilia repeat their lively game.
"Marvels of Pond-life" by Henry J. Slack
Two ventral bands composed of regular transverse rows of cilia are usually found.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 11, Slice 5" by Various
This larva swims by means of minute vibratile hairs, or ciliae.
"On the Origin and Metamorphoses of Insects" by Sir John Lubbock
This groove is lined by columnar cells, some carrying cilia, others being glandular and secreting sticky slime.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 7, Slice 8" by Various
Earlier still, it was, no doubt, an infusory-like gemmule, clothed with cilia.
"Omphalos" by Philip Henry Gosse
The locomotion of the paramoecium is caused by the movement of these cilia, which lash the water like a multitude of tiny oars.
"A Civic Biology" by George William Hunter
Cilia, 42, 43, 48, 65.
"Stories of the Universe: Animal Life" by B. Lindsay
This fringe of cilia is marked in Fig.
"The History of Creation, Vol. II (of 2)" by Ernst Haeckel
I have observed remains of what I consider to be cilia in this section of the organ.
"The Works of Francis Maitland Balfour, Volume 1" by Francis Maitland Balfour
After a while it breaks away and swims about by means of this basal circlet of cilia.
"Elementary Zoology, Second Edition" by Vernon L. Kellogg
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In news:

Crucial to their function are tip links , strings of protein that physically connect the cilia or "hairs" found on these cells.
While waiting for graduate school to begin in 1980, Giambattista Cilia's father gave him and two friends a few tons of nero d'avola grapes for winemaking.
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In science:

Many microorganisms are able to propel themselves, bacteria, sperm cells, microalgae, etc. A quantitative understanding of the hydrodynamics of flagella and cilia is thus of great interest [2, 3].
The random walk of a low-Reynolds-number swimmer
Atomic force microscopy also allows direct measurement of the force exerted by cilia .
The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms
Its surface is covered by thousands of cilia that beat in a coordinated manner , propelling the cell at speeds of ≈ 500 µm/s (Fig. 1h).
The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms
Eukaryotic flagella and cilia use distributed actuation.
The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms
In this review we restrict our attention to the case of planar beating, although many sperm flagella exhibit helical beat patterns, and nodal cilia have a twirling, rotational beat pattern [141, 142].
The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms
However, when they are closely-packed on surfaces, cilia arrays display collective behavior, termed metachronal waves.
The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms
If instead there is a large number of cilia, waves arise naturally as a result of hydrodynamic interactions [110].
The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms
Subsequent work showed that as the waves develop from arbitrary initial conditions the rate of work done by the cilia as they are beating is decreasing [111].
The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms
For small enough temperature, a transition is observed between a state where no net flow occurs on average, to a state where all cilia point in the same direction and a net flow is created [229].
The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms
Motivated by nodal flows in development [226], a second study considered cilia whose tips perform three-dimensional tra jectories over a surface.
The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms
Depending on the relative position and orientation of the two cilia models, in-phase (φ = 0) or out-of-phase locking (φ = π) arise from random initial conditions [228]. A similar model with two sphere-like cilia rotating due to an applied torque near a wall was recently proposed.
The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms
Fluid mechanics of propulsion by cilia and flagella.
The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms
Forces applied by cilia measured on explants from mucociliary tissue.
The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms
Simulations of three-dimensional ciliary beats and cilia interactions.
The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms
Randomization of left-right asymmetry due to loss of nodal cilia generating leftward flow of extraembryonic fluid in mice lacking KIF3B motor protein.
The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms
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