B

Definitions

  • A woman leans against a letter B
    A woman leans against a letter B
  • WordNet 3.6
    • n B aerobic rod-shaped spore-producing bacterium; often occurring in chainlike formations; found primarily in soil
    • n B the blood group whose red cells carry the B antigen
    • n B the 2nd letter of the Roman alphabet
    • n b the 2nd letter of the Roman alphabet
    • n b (physics) a unit of nuclear cross section; the effective circular area that one particle presents to another as a target for an encounter
    • n B a logarithmic unit of sound intensity equal to 10 decibels
    • n B a trivalent metalloid element; occurs both in a hard black crystal and in the form of a yellow or brown powder
    • n B originally thought to be a single vitamin but now separated into several B vitamins
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The first commercial chewing gum was sold in 1848 by John B. Curtis, who also made the gum. He called the gum "State of Maine Pure Spruce Gum."
    • B is the second letter of the English alphabet. (See Guide to Pronunciation, §§ 196, 220.) It is etymologically related to pvfw, and m, letters representing sounds having a close organic affinity to its own sound; as in Eng. bursar and purser; Eng. bear and Lat. ferre; Eng. silver and Ger. silber; Lat. cubitum and It. gomito; Eng. seven, Anglo-Saxon seofon, Ger. sieben, Lat. septem, Gr."epta`, Sanskrit saptan. The form of letter B is Roman, from the Greek B (Beta), of Semitic origin. The small b was formed by gradual change from the capital B.In Music, B is the nominal of the seventh tone in the model major scale (the scale of C major), or of the second tone in it's relative minor scale (that of A minor). B♭ stands for B flat, the tone a half step, or semitone, lower than B. In German, B stands for our B♭, while our B natural is called H (pronounced hä).
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: The first known contraceptive was crocodile dung, used by Egyptians in 2000 B.C
    • b The second letter in order in the English alphabet, as it was in the Phenician, and has been in most other alphabets derived from the Phenician. (See A.) The name of the Phenician character was beth, meaning house; from this comes the Greek name, beta. The Phenician beth, with some early Greek and Latin forms of b, and with the ancient Egyptian characters, hieratic and hieroglyphic, from which the others are by many authorities supposed to be ultimately derived, are given below: The value of the character is the same in all these alphabets. It is a labial sonant (or voiced) mute (or stop, or check); that is, it is made with the lips alone, by a complete closure cutting off all exit of breath from the mouth, but with accompanying sonant vibrations of the vocal chords, the current of air necessary to produce this being driven from the lungs into the closed cavity of the mouth. The corresponding surd (or voiceless) mute is p. (See P.) B has nothing of that variety of pronunciation shown by most English letters; but it is sometimes silent, as when final after m, in lamb, limb, tomb, thumb, and in a few other cases, as debt, doubt. In most of these cases b is a modern graphic insertion, and was never pronounced (in the English forms); e.g., limb, thumb, debt, doubt. In the fundamental or Germanic part of our language a b comes from a more original aspirate found in Sanskrit as bh, in Greek as φ (ph), in Latin usually as feminine Examples are: E. brother = Skt. bhrātar = Gr. φράτηρ = Latin frater; English bear (v.) = Skt. √ bhar = Gr. φέρειν = Latin ferre. With the English b corresponds that of most of the other Germanic dialects. In the original Indo-European or Aryan language b was nearly or altogether wanting.
    • b As a numeral, B was used by the Hebrews and Greeks, as now by the Arabians, for 2.
    • b As a symbol: In music, the seventh tone, or “leading tone,” of the model diatonic scale, or scale of C. B was the last tone to be adopted into the modern major scale. It was the first note to be modified by lowering its pitch a semitone; its two forms, the b rotundum or B flat (♭) and the b quadratum or B natural (♮) (see below), afterward became conventional signs which were applied as accidentals to all the notes of the scale. See accidental, n., 1. In Italian and French the same note is called si. In German use B denotes B flat, while B natural is represented by H, and is called ha.
    • b In chem., the symbol of boron.
    • b In ornithology, the accessory femorocaudal muscle, one of the chief classificatory muscles of the leg.
    • b In mathematics, see A, 2 .
    • b In abstract reasoning, suppositions, etc., the second or other person or thing mentioned: as, if A strike B.
    • b In general, the second in any series: as, Company B (of a regiment), schedule B, etc.; in the form b, or b, the second column of a page, in a book printed in columns.
    • b As an abbreviation, B. stands for— Bachelor (or Middle Latin Baccalaureus), in B. A. or A. B., B. C. E., B. D., B. L., B. M., etc. See these abbreviations. In dates, before, as in B. C. or B. C., and born, as in b. 1813. In a ship's log-book, in the form b., blue sky. In hydrometric measurements, Baumé: as, 8° B. See Baumé's hydrometer, under hydrometer. Also Bé.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The earliest known example of an organized market for equities dates from Rome, second century B.C
    • B the second letter of our alphabet, called by the Phœnicians beth, 'the house,' coresponding to Greek βετα, 'beta.'
    • B in music is the seventh note of the scale of C major;
    • B a humorous euphemism for the domestic bug.
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Quotations

  • Dorothy Parker
    Dorothy%20Parker
    “She runs the gamut of emotions from A to B.”
  • Abigail Van Buren
    Abigail Van Buren
    “The best index to a person's character is (a) how he treats people who can't do him any good, and (b) how he treats people who can't fight back.”
  • Fats Domino
    Fats Domino
    “A lot of fellows nowadays have a B. A., M. D., or Ph. D. Unfortunately, they don't have a J. O. B.”
  • Source Unknown
    Source Unknown
    “The best vitamin for making friends, B-1.”
  • Ambrose Bierce
    Ambrose%20Bierce
    “Confidante. One entrusted by A with the secrets of B confided to herself by C.”
  • Dennis Rodman
    Dennis Rodman
    “Fifty percent of life in the N.B.A. is sex. The other fifty percent is money.”

Idioms

Plan B - Plan is an alternate or fall-back position or method when the initial attempt or plan goes wrong.
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Usage

In literature:

Mahommed b. Abdarrahman b. Moawiya b. Hudaij, 155 (772).
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 9, Slice 1" by Various
Otherwise, B'ronth was invisible.
"Quest of the Golden Ape" by Ivar Jorgensen
In Africa, Musa b. Nosair, who succeeded Hassan b.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 1" by Various
Suppose A sends a barrel of apples to B supposing, from their previous course of dealing, that B will return them if he does not want them?
"Putnam's Handy Law Book for the Layman" by Albert Sidney Bolles
The first circle is A.B.F.E, the second circle is B.C.D.E, and they crosse one an other in B. and in E, and in no more pointes.
"The Path-Way to Knowledg" by Robert Record
The ancient Catina was founded in 729 B.C.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 5" by Various
The censorship was believed to have been instituted in 443 B.C.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 6" by Various
He was born about 624 B.C.
"A Critical History of Greek Philosophy" by W. T. Stace
If 20...B - Q 1; 21 Kt - Q 6, R - B 2; 22 Kt x B, R x Kt; 23 B x Kt, B x B; 24 R x P, R - B 2; 25 R - Q 2, and White is a Pawn ahead.
"Chess Fundamentals" by José Raúl Capablanca
Let A be the Church, B the Empire, C the authority or power of the Empire.
"Dante. An essay." by R. W. Church
Almost down to the times of the empire, the care of the corn-supply formed part of the aedile's duties, although in 440 B.C.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 2" by Various
He reigned from 589 to 570 B.C.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 3" by Various
He was born about 324 B.C., and succeeded his father in 280 B.C.
"The New Gresham Encyclopedia. Vol. 1 Part 2" by Various
Markov (1888); P. Pashtukhov and H.B.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 4" by Various
B. is usually employed.
"Soap-Making Manual" by E. G. Thomssen
For this reason the ratio of a to b is sometimes written a/b, but the more correct method is to write it a:b.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 5" by Various
Sennacherib took it in 701 B.C.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 7" by Various
B. Elford, bookkeeper for A. M. Foster & Co., No.
"The Complete Story of the Galveston Horror" by Various
If B is now removed to a distance, the induced charges neutralize one another, and B returns to its original uncharged state.
"The New Gresham Encyclopedia" by Various
He tried to make me climb that tree, and, b'gee, says I, 'I won't, b'gee!
"A Cadet's Honor" by Upton Sinclair
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In poetry:

B was a Bottle blue,
Which was not very small;
Papa he filled it full of beer,
And then he drank it all.
"Nonsense Alphabet" by Edward Lear
In Spain--in Old Castile,
Near Soria, it stood;
B.C. one hundred thirty three
Beheld this scene of blood.
"Enigma XXVIII." by Elizabeth Hitchener
MAN AT WHEEL.
Belay y'r jaw, y' swab! y' hoss-marine!
(To the Captain.)
Ay, ay, Sir! Stiddy, Sir! Sou'wes' b' sou'!
"A Sea Dialogue" by Oliver Wendell Holmes
Soft B—- and rough C—-s adieu,
Earl Warwick made your moan,
The lively H—-k and you
May knock up whores alone.
"Farewell to London" by Alexander Pope
He wasn't good, despite the air
An M.B. waistcoat gives;
Indeed, his dearest friends declare
No greater humbug lives.
"First Love" by William Schwenck Gilbert
A confidant had BAILEY B.,
A gay Mongolian dog was he;
I am not good at Turkish names,
And so I call him SIMPLE JAMES.
"Pasha Bailey Ben" by William Schwenck Gilbert

In news:

B & B's Winter Bait: It's a Crime, Really.
Is now a B&B, as in bed-and-breakfast.
B & B Naples Towne Centre 6.
A Triple-B Chairman for a Triple-B Company, Stadium Welfare, Euro Crisis.
B'nai B'rith Strongly Condemns Christmas Day Bombings in Nigeria.
B'nai B'rith condemns the reprehensible bombing of St Theresa Catholic Church in Madalla, near Nigeria's capital, on Christmas Day .
Rock and Roll legend Chuck Berry performs at the B.B.
Plan B Forced To Go To Plan B To Rename Its Double Double Burger.
Summer Issue of B'nai B'rith Magazine Examines the Role of Jews in the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s.
Enlarge Buy This Photo Workers from B & B Wrecking and Excavation work to demolish Seneca County's 1884 courthouse, Tuesday, January 17, 2012.
Enlarge Buy This Photo Workers from B & B Wrecking and Excavation work.
Memphis police say 70-year-old B.B.
Head south, for a weekend at a cozy South Fork B&B.
B-roll download available here: DV KST Release B-Roll.mov.
Enlarge Buy This Photo Workers from B & B Wrecking and Excavation work to demolish Seneca County's 1884 courthouse , Tuesday, January 17, 2012.
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In science:

Similarly, if I = [a, b] or (a, b], fb,b = fa,b and Fa,b ∩ (a, b) is empty, then there exists a point c ∈ (a, b) such that fb,c = fc,c and Fc,c is contained in (a, b].
Sextactic points on a simple closed curve
For any bi-paracocyclic module A, T ot(C(A)) is a paracochain complex with T otn (C(A)) = Pp+q=n A(p, q ) and with the operators T ot(b) = b + ¯b and T ot(B ) = B + T ¯B , where T = 1 − (bB + B b).
Equivariant Cyclic Cohomology of H-Algebras
R Z dτ Tr (cid:2)∂τ Y i ∂τ Y i − [B i , Y j ][B i , Y j ] − [B i , B j ][Y i , Y j ] +∂τ A∂τ A − [B i , A][B i , A] − 2i ˙B i [A, Y i ] +∂τ ¯C ∂τ C − [B i , ¯C ][B i , C ] + θT ˙θ − θT γi [B i , θ]i and where S3 and S4 contain terms cubic and quartic in the fluctuations Y i , A, C, θ.
M(atrix) Theory: Matrix Quantum Mechanics as a Fundamental Theory
Using the natural isomorphism σ we can define new natural isomorphisms bβ = (tγ ) · (σ ◦ 1Ke×1C ) : ⊗ ◦ (Ke × 1C ) −→ Q bγ = (tβ ) · (σ ◦ 11C ×Ke ) : ⊗ ◦ (1C × Ke ) −→ P For bα and the two natural isomorphisms bβ and bγ we have Proposition 9 hC, ⊗, Ke , bα, bβ , bγ i is a monoidal category Proof.
The categorical theory of relations and quantizations
In order to prove that ( bα, bβ , bγ , bσ) ∈ S we must show that ( bα, bβ , bγ , bσ ) defines a symmetric monoidal structure.
The categorical theory of relations and quantizations
For A ∈ A and B ∈ B we define ˆA := ψϕ(A) and ˆB := ϕψ(B ), and call A ∈ A resp. B ∈ B to be saturated if A = ˆA resp. B = ˆB .
On Cebotarev sets
If (L, B ) and (L′ , B ′ ) are crystal bases of the finite-dimensional Uq (sp2n )-modules M and M ′ , then (LNL′ , BNB ′ ) with B N B ′ = {b N b′ ; b ∈ B , b′ ∈ B ′} is a crystal basis of M NM ′ .
An algorithm for computing the global basis of an irreducible $U_{q}(sp_{2n})$-module
Since A | B is not empty there is a b ∈ A | B and, by the previous remark, d(A, B ) = d(A, b) and therefore we conclude that d(A, B ) = min{d(A, b) : b ∈ B}.
Distance Semantics for Belief Revision
We can therefore conclude that d(a, B ) = d(a′ , B ), so (a, B )R∗ (a′ , B ), a | B ⊆ {a, a′} | B and finally that b ∈ {a, a′} | B .
Distance Semantics for Belief Revision
From now on, we choose µ = µb′ with µb′ the maximizer in (3.6), i.e., bI (b′ ) = µb′ b′ − Λ+ (µb′ ), which is possible when b′ > b∗∗ (recall (3.6)).
Weak-interaction limits for one-dimensional random polymers
A(t), B (t), C (t)]lmn = [B (t), C (t), A(t)]lmn = [C (t), A(t), B (t)]lmn = −[C (t), B (t), A(t)]lmn = −[B (t), A(t), C (t)]lmn = −[A(t), C (t), B (t)]lmn , [A(t) + B (t), C (t), D(t)]lmn = [A(t), C (t), D(t)]lmn + [B (t), C (t), D(t)]lmn .
Cubic Matrix, Nambu Mechanics and Beyond
Q(b) = q(b, −b : b) and P (b) = p(b, −b : b), q(b, −b, : b) , obtained by setting a = −b, x = b in q(b, a : x), (We have written explicitly the interval dependence of q(x)).
New correlation functions for random matrices and integrals over supergroups
Example 5.19 The reading of the periodic orbit h b ⊗ c ⊗ b ⊗ c i, with a pattern of lenght 4, yields b ⊗ c ⊗ b + c ⊗ b⊗ c + b⊗ c⊗ b+ c⊗ b⊗ c.
Coassociative grammar, periodic orbits and quantum random walk over Z
A + B ) = h(A)h(B ), where A and B are two subsystems of an isolated system A + B , λS is a constant, h(A) or h(B ) is the factor depending on A or B in the derivative ∂S (A+B ) ∂S (B ) or ∂S (A+B ) .
Generalized algebra within a nonextensive statistics
To this end define a linear map Ψ : HC ⊗ B → HC ⊗ B by Ψ(12 ⊗ b) = 12 ⊗ b, Ψ(J ⊗ b) = −J ⊗ b, Ψ(K ⊗ b) = K ⊗ b, Ψ(L ⊗ b) = −L ⊗ b, for b ∈ B.
Non-commutative Polynomials of Independent Gaussian Random Matrices. The Real and Symplectic Cases
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