Artiodactyla

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n Artiodactyla an order of hooved mammals of the subclass Eutheria (including pigs and peccaries and hippopotami and members of the suborder Ruminantia) having an even number of functional toes
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n. pl Artiodactyla (Zoöl) One of the divisions of the ungulate animals. The functional toes of the hind foot are even in number, and the third digit of each foot (corresponding to the middle finger in man) is asymmetrical and paired with the fourth digit, as in the hog, the sheep, and the ox; -- opposed to Perissodactyla.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • artiodactyla An order or a suborder of ungulate or hoofed mammals which are cloven-footed or even-toed and have hoofs in pairs (either two or four), as all ruminants (Bovidœ, Cervidœ, etc.) and hog-like ungulates (Hippopotamidœ, Suidœ, etc.): opposed to odd-toed ungulates or Perissodactyla, as the horse, rhinoceros, tapir, etc. The character indicated in the name is only one expression of a wide difference which exists between all the living ungulates of the two series named, though various extinct forms go far toward bridging over the gap between them. The functional digits of the Artiodactyla are the third and fourth of the typical pentadactyl foot, forming the pair of large true hoofs, in addition to which there may be present a pair (second and fifth) of smaller hoofed digits, the false hoofs. The metacarpals and metatarsals are correspondingly modified, in typical cases by the reduction of the lateral ones (second and fifth) and the ankylosis of the enlarged third and fourth into a stout single canon-bone. There are also modifications of the carpal and tarsal bones. The femur has a third trochanter. The dorsolumbar vertebræ are, in general, 19: dorsal 12–15, lumbar 7–4. The premaxillary bones are more or less flattened toward their ends, and in the ruminants bear no teeth. The stomach is more or less subdivided and complex. This group includes all the ungulate (not the solidungulate, however) animals domesticated from time immemorial, as the ruminants and the pigs, all the wild ruminants, as the deer and antelopes, and the peccaries and hippopotamuses.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Artiodactyla är-ti-o-dak′til-a a sub-order of the great mammalian order of Ungulata, having the third digit unsymmetrical in itself, but forming a symmetrical pair with the fourth digit—as distinguished from the Perissodactyla (horse, tapir, rhinoceros), which have the third digit of each limb symmetrical in itself, an odd number of digits on the hind-foot, and at least twenty-two dorso-lumbar vertebræ. The Artiodactyla, again, divide into two groups, the Non-Ruminantia and the Ruminantia.
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
NL., fr. Gr. even + finger or toe

Usage

In literature:

These differ materially from the foregoing section of the Artiodactyla by the construction of their digestive organs.
"Natural History of the Mammalia of India and Ceylon" by Robert A. Sterndale
The characteristics of camels and their systematic position are discussed under the headings TYLOPODA and ARTIODACTYLA.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 1" by Various
The Artiodactyla, again, divide into two groups, the Non-Ruminantia and the Ruminantia.
"Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary (part 1 of 4: A-D)" by Various
II, The Artiodactyla which includes seven families of animals all having an even number of toes.
"Natural History in Anecdote" by Various
For the ancestral genera of the hippopotamus line, see ARTIODACTYLA.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 13, Slice 5" by Various
As to the Perissodactyla and the Artiodactyla we cannot bring them together nearer than in quite early Tertiary times.
"The Cambridge Natural History, Vol X., Mammalia" by Frank Evers Beddard
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