-ation

Definitions

  • Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • -ation A suffix forming nouns of action, and often equivalent to the verbal substantive in -ing. It sometimes has the further meanings of state, and that which results from the action. Many of these nouns have verbs in -ate; as, alliterate -ation, narrate -ation ; many are derived through the French; as, alteration, visitation ; and many are formed on verbs ending in the Greek formative -izeFr. -ise); as, civilization, demoralization .
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n -ation A suffix of Latin origin, occurring in nouns of action, etc. These nouns are properly abstract nouns equivalent to English nouns in -ing, and are taken directly from the Latin, as citation, commendation, creation, education, liberation, etc., and formed in Latin (commendatio, etc.) from the verbs represented in English either by forms without suffix (from the Latin infinitive), as cite, commend, etc., or by forms in -ate (from the Latin perfect participle), as create, educate, liberate; or formed in modern speech, whether from verbs without suffix, as in fixation, quotation, etc., from fix, quote, etc., or from verbs in -ate, as concentration, desiccation, from concentrate, desiccate, etc., or from verbs of non-Latin origin, as starvation, flirtation, these being the earliest formations (in the middle of the eighteenth century) in -ation from verbs of native origin (starve, flirt). Some words in -ation have no accompanying verb in English, as constellation, lunation, negation, etc.
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. -ation,em. See -tion

Usage

In literature:

TEST: tes'tify; attest' (-ation); contest'; detest' (-able); protest' (-ation, -ant); prot'estantism.
"New Word-Analysis" by William Swinton
Strigillate -ation: = stridulate -anon; q.v.
"Explanation of Terms Used in Entomology" by John. B. Smith
Such the march, the forward march of civilize-ation!
"Bonaventure" by George Washington Cable
I dunner w'at yo' mammy dreamin' 'bout fer ter let dat nigger gal be a-holl'in' en a-bawlin' atter you all 'roun' dish yer plan'ation.
"Nights With Uncle Remus" by Joel Chandler Harris
ATION 67: The President should create a Senior Advisor for Economic Reconstruction in Iraq.
"The Iraq Study Group Report" by United States Institute for Peace
I dunner w'at yo' mammy dreamin' 'bout fer ter let dat nigger gal be a-holl'in' en a-bawlin' atter you all 'roun' dish yer plan'ation.
"Nights With Uncle Remus" by Joel Chandler Harris
It look like it lonesome all over de plan'ation.
"Free Joe and Other Georgian Sketches" by Joel Chandler Harris
And indeed what could be done in Old Gray's Inn, was on that occasion quite a Revel-ation to most of us.
"Punch, or the London Charivari, Volume 93, July 16, 1887" by Various
Dear me, it is a curious fas-cin-ation such places have for some pip-ple!
"Mushroom Town" by Oliver Onions
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In news:

Destin -ation.com is the go to Destin Florida Beach and Vacation Guide.
Election Crystal Ball N ATIONAL R EVIEW O NLINE collects some varied election predictions to mark Election Day 2012.
They prefer walkable cities and good public transport ation to the hassle and cost of maintaining a car.
A proposal to tack a $5 fee on vehicle registrations in Wayne County to raise money for public transport ation received a less-than-enthusiastic reception Tuesday from the Goldsboro-Wayne Transportation Authority.
The Pepper Tree is a sense-ational experience.
Residents hope court date will force ation on rundown house.
N ation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan has sought medical care in the US Virgin Islands.
In what is surely a product of years of globalization, price defl ation and the atomization of the home textiles industry, this year's Top 15 supplier ranking is remarkable for what's happening at the top of the chart.
The Party's Problem From the forthcoming issue of N ATIONAL R EVIEW.
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In science:

Our general results include widely studied gravity theories and inflation models as special cases, and show how the well known consistency relation and spectra in ordinary Einstein gravity inflation models are affected by the generalized nature of the gravity theories.
Inflationary spectra in generalized gravity: Unified forms
In weakly coupled scalar field models of inflation, the spectrum of fluctuations is calculated by assuming that fluctuation modes start out in the vacuum (i.e. minimum energy density) state at the beginning of inflation and subsequently evolve as determined by the equations of motion.
Trans-Planckian Physics and the Spectrum of Fluctuations in a Bouncing Universe
Here inflation is entirely based on the kinetic term and it can take place even if the field is running very fast (X is large); typically c2 S ≪ 1 for k-inflation.
Enhancing the tensor-to-scalar ratio in simple inflation
Therefore, in models where c2 S > 1, the energy scale of inflation must be higher than in ordinary slow-roll inflation with canonical kinetic term.
Enhancing the tensor-to-scalar ratio in simple inflation
However, if one looks at models of inflation in these compactifications, a generic problem crops up in the slow roll inflation.
Non-Gravitating Scalar Field in the FRW Background
If we achieve sufficient amount of inflation before the scalar field starts gravitating then subsequent time dependence of the scalar field has no bearing on the model of inflation.
Non-Gravitating Scalar Field in the FRW Background
Nevertheless inflation in the theory with a non-gravitating scalar field is a novel way of by-passing the ‘η-problem’ in the models of inflation in the flux compactifications.
Non-Gravitating Scalar Field in the FRW Background
This paper furthers the foundational development of warm inflation dynamics from first principles quantum field theory by calculating conservative lower bound estimates on dissipative effects during inflation using the well established thermal equilibrium approximation.
Warm inflation dynamics in the low temperature regime
In contrast, for monomial potentials in the cold inflation case, usually called chaotic inflation scenarios , the inflaton amplitude during inflation is larger than the Planck scale.
Warm inflation dynamics in the low temperature regime
Inevitably warm inflation dynamics is nonequilibrium and a complete treatment of the statistical state during warm inflation is probably not amenable to simple analytic approximations, with more numerical based methods such as [17, 18] needed.
Warm inflation dynamics in the low temperature regime
The observation was made much later in the development of the inflation sub ject that in fact this is not the unique situation and that dissipative effects can occur during inflation.
Warm inflation dynamics in the low temperature regime
The above condition ensures that the radiation does not increase too fast during warm inflation, otherwise it will dominate too soon, not allowing inflation too proceed.
Warm inflation dynamics in the low temperature regime
Without enough dissipation, i.e., either for cold inflation with r = 0, or only weak dissipation with r < 1, these kind of models lead to inflation only for values of the inflaton field larger than the Planck mass mP .
Warm inflation dynamics in the low temperature regime
Therefore, although in principle having strong dissipation during inflation is possible with a monomial potential, maintaining inflation for at least 50 e-folds requires rather large values of N , and it tends to produce a too large amplitude for the primordial spectrum.
Warm inflation dynamics in the low temperature regime
Given that during inflation the potential is dominated by the constant term V0 , we can easily keep the value of the field below Planck in this class of models during slow-roll inflation.
Warm inflation dynamics in the low temperature regime
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